Expert of the Week   for  25 - 31 May 2015

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Roberto Brutus

Social entrepreneur, researcher and instructor

Independent Consultant Expertise:  Promotion of social entrepreneurship, community businesses, and the role of municipal and communal governments to strengthen democratic leadership and sound governance. Education and teaching.

Over 7 years experience of teaching, research and management in secondary and tertiary education. 9 years experience in managerial, consultancy and research for not-for profit organizations. I co-founded NGO ACHE International in 2006 (Santiago, Chile), and founded Norsouthed Cooperative Innovation Foundation in 2014 (Toronto, Canada). I majored in modern languages (focus on English, French and Spanish) (State University of Haiti), and have a Master's in Educational Management (University of Diego Portales (Chile). Post-graduate training in Islamic Policies and Arabic Language (University of Chile), and finance and business law (University of Toronto).

Urban and rural community-based DRR through “Decent Civism in Action” to empower municipal governments for good community leadership and businesses

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QQuestion by Mr James Tseyah

Dear Expert,
Greetings from Cameroon.
I will be delighted to know which best approach to use to better implicate the appropriate stakeholders for the implementation of the recent Sendai Framework in Cameroon.
Regards
James

Mr James Tseyah CEO | Cameroon League for Development
Cameroon

APosted on 31 May 2015

Response to your question
Thank you very much for your question. Broadly speaking, just to reiterate the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 aims to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health, and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries over the next 15 years. It has been recognised that the success of this post- 2015 framework hinges on creating and implementing policies that are built on the best available knowledge.
How do I comprehend in that contextualization “best available knowledge” based on your question? In my opinion, best available knowledge is not science fiction of techniques unnecessary to solve problems related to natural disaster and hazards in Cameroon but how to describe the reality of what it is going on before and after a big or small disaster in your country? A technique can be the best for the Japanese, or for some people in the Americas, or for some European countries but if you do not possess the compulsory resources to apply it in Cameroon it is exactly similar to a science fiction movie. We mean that please do not waste your time if you really want to make a difference, you can turn yourself a hero of a given Cameroon vulnerable community of 10, 0000 to 150,000 people if you learn very simple techniques how to teach them what to do to become almost auto-sufficient when facing a flood for instance or any type of natural disaster or man-made hazard.  
Please ask yourself and your colleagues these following questions: Who are they, the ones in charge of making policies generally speaking in your country “Cameroon”? How do they make them? Do they need civil society entities, community leaders and the general public opinions when it is time to make serious policies for changes that will better the lives of Cameroonian citizens?  Without pragmatic responses to these questions, it is very dubious that we can find for yourself and your people magical formulas, not even high level UN experts will be able to assist.  In essence, I suggest that make sure that you become realistic vis-à-vis how to reduce disaster risks in Cameroon.
Henceforth I do think that what I have described in my presentation in general can be very useful not only to your country but also to other countries in Africa. Why?  UNICEF projects that 1.8 billion babies will be born in Africa over the next 35 years therefore I add that it will also be a higher vulnerability among African people when they have to solve major problems related to natural and man-made disasters, that is, it is very crucial that African local policymakers, not international delegates only, figure out how they are going to deal with their Population Pyramids.
Please to come back to your wise question, let us take dear sir the case of your country. How is Cameroon Population Pyramid henceforth?   Cameroon population growth rate if I am not mistaken is about 2.6% - If there is no real policymaking about getting this rate decreased, just do the equation on your own further you will enable to project your country population for the years from 2020 to 2035 facing disaster risks in a world of ours in which climate change is unstoppable. Did I answer your question so far?
What may population Pyramid provide? It may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. Now ask yourself this question: What is political and social stability in the eyes Cameroon leaders and in the eyes of everyday Cameroonian citizen in general by doing a country survey statistically speaking? One more thing is that that said aforementioned definition is a crucial and fundamental factor for sustainable development which is aligned with disaster risk reduction.
There might be something interesting about Cameroon just to make you at ease. What is Cameroon in terms of economic development, political and social stability for the applicability of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030?
We might understand that Douala, famous Cameroonian city which would be a sort of pearl in the whole CEMAC region of six countries and then Yaoundé, the administrative Capital with that funny name the city of the Ministries, cannot only be the whole Cameroon.  That is, it is exactly what we call Cameroon, don’t we?  Therefore we need a difference one to be able to apply in this said country the Sendai Framework in which you are so interested.
Now ask yourself this question: What is happening now to the project of Flood reduction in the city of Yaoundé starting with the Mayor Jean Claude Adjessa if I am not mistaken (Yaoundé City Sanitation Master Plan)
In reality if you want to reduce disaster risks for instance in the country capital city , just change the nickname , the city of Ministries to the city of efficient, democratic, and elected mayors and councillors.
Who might be mayors and city councillors for real? People that have been working in the city neighbourhoods and communities for years, that might be the first option, we mean community leaders, people that live in the community doing businesses , community businesses by giving jobs , that might be the second option. Young people and women ought to be empowered to become mayors and city councillors, which ought to be one of the best options as well.  
For instance, if you want the riches, and business incomes, and taxes of Douala to be shared across the country, from North to South, from West to East. Who are they the ones in charge of the city administration? How do municipal governments work? Are they powerful enough? If yes, do the mayors and councillors, the majority are community leaders?  
What type of civics do Cameroonian people need for now? This is what I mean by Decent Civism in Action. In the context of Cameroon, you might be in search for a system beyond the city of Douala administration and the city of the Ministries, as you know better than I, Yaoundé.
Sometimes solutions linked with ethnic problems, multilingualism communication barrier, freedom of speech to spread factual information are crucial to promote the type of civics I am expounding.
In essence, I recommend that the best case scenario to apply the Sendai Framework in your region (CEMAC) is to try with Eco-efficiency and community engagement. But how it might be possible without a type of civics linked with the people culture. There is one thing really important in the applicability of Eco-efficiency is trust between the governor and the governed.
In the context of my presentation, the governor is the mayor and councillors, and the governed is the city dweller that can trust her mayor or councillor to take care of her, especially during a natural disaster, like flood for instance.
In conclusion, without a type of civics in the fashion I have described it, just to strengthen municipal governments in big and small cities, in rural areas and the most remote areas of the country, admitting the transfer of funds to teach and alphabetize people about prevention, preparedness, and raising awareness ; further understanding the way of living of a given vulnerable rural community, dwellers in Douala and Yaoundé shanty towns, reading thousands of literature, research documents , “expert say”  about Sendai Framework , not to be pessimistic but it could be a waste of time however if mayoral and councillors offices are administered by elected community leaders , especially empowered serious  civic minded and efficient women and young leaders , so there might be a type of hope to reduce disaster risk not only in Cameroon but also in other CEMAC countries.   Thus, the best approach to use to better implicate the appropriate stakeholders for DRR compulsory for sustainable development in a long run for the next 10 to 15 years is through the building of community leadership and management using strong community engagement to create sound and participative municipal governments which is a catalyst and social leverage for automatic decentralization and deconcentration of the Central Government so then to attain that culminant point , it is obligatory to follow each point previously explained.
 

QQuestion by Mr Juvenson EDOUARD

Sir Roberto: Could you explain to me please as someone who was born in the Caribbean how the system you are speaking about can be good to reduce problem of disaster in the regions during hurricanes season and big floods , is there any example of a country that does better?
Thank you.

Mr Juvenson EDOUARD Engineering Project Management | Master Student
Canada

APosted on 31 May 2015

Response to your question-
The majority of Caribbean Islands, if I am not mistaken, are located above the sea level which makes them a little bit more secure in terms of climate change than these of locating in the Pacific Ocean however Hurricanes and Floods sound to be different issues that we ought to explain in a distinct fashion.

It is important to know that there is a lot of literature, research documents, scientific and technical works, and people experiences on the ground about how to reduce disaster risks and then the major concepts used are Prevention and Preparedness, raising awareness and related training and exercises. In essence, visiting the UN prevention website so a lot of useful information can be found however with respect to your question, I think that you want to know about something different considering the fashion I have described this short paper.  Follow these links: https://www.preventionweb.net/english/
https://www.preventionweb.net/english/themes/

As you might know the Caribbean population now is over 42 million inhabitants, most of these souls dwelling in the bigger islands Cuba over 11 million , Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) over 21 million, included Jamaica and Puerto Rico over 3 million inhabitants both. 

As you might also know Cuba is the bigger island and the second biggest is Hispaniola, in essence, staring at the figures, the worst case scenario describes the second one both republics (Haiti and DR) possess a population Pyramid quite similar. Why do we speak about demographic trends herein? 

At first, Population Pyramid may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development, in essence these factors are also important to sustainable development.
Secondly Cuba shows the least population growth rate -0.14%, Puerto Rico -0.65%, Haiti 1.08 %( Do not forget the demographic effect of Jan 2010 earthquake) and Dominican Republic 1.25%

Thirdly population growth projection based on these population indicators are teaching us that by 2020 to 2030 if we do the equation , what it will be decreased or increased will affect at large each island sustainable development and the degree of people vulnerabilities  in case of natural disaster frequency and man-made disasters.

Why prevention? That is, people ought to learn how to live with the inevitable occurrences of disasters especially because of the constancy of climate change. But sometimes prevention ought to be calculated by emphasizing on the consequences of the demographic factors, especially when spending money for first-aid on the ground aftermath of a given disaster. Who does not know the difference among 10; 100; 1,000; 10, 0000; 100,000; 1,000,000 when helping vulnerable people after a big Caribbean Hurricane? 

What Haiti and Dominican Republic might learn from Cuba?  Cuba ought to be the teacher of other islands for many reasonable factors. For instance during the Hurricane Sandy in reality the responses in Cuba compared to other Caribbean Islands, are lessons taught to learn as fast as it might be possible but it sounds that nobody is eager to be a disciplined student.

Solving disaster risks in the Caribbean is very often paradoxical and very contrasting in a sense that people should be realistic by adopting methods by focusing on what we want to expound pragmatically in this short presentation.  

At that point, this is exactly where we come across the importance of civics in action, community leadership, community engagement and people mobilization. Sometime people need not only to learn about new simple techniques but also they need to be alphabetized as quick as possible.

We see big in illusion but we see small in reality to make a difference necessary to teach vulnerable people how to be auto-sufficient to protect the environment of their urban neighbourhood or rural community.

When people lack education in almost whatsoever, it is very critical to teach them to make a change although it will be the first step to improve their manner of living within their vulnerable community. So we have to suggest them to resort to a type decent civics in action establishing a compact among themselves for accountability.      
 

QQuestion by Ms Caridad Alvarez

Que supone que pueda suceder en el futuro en caso de grandes cambios en los sistemas actuales cubanos , explique como esto puede afectar la biodiversidad cubana y otros aspectos ambientales a largo plazo segun el tema que usted esta presentando, por favor?

Ms Caridad Alvarez Ingeniera Quimica | ONG ACHE
Cuba

APosted on 30 May 2015

Respuesta a su pregunta
Como lo sabemos, Cuba es el principal centro de biodiversidad vegetal del caribe, vale mucho cuidar esa riqueza natural casi única en su género.  Se entiende que según comentarios e investigaciones de algunos expertos locales hay una pérdida gradual de la biodiversidad cubana aunque se valora los esfuerzos del régimen gubernamental del país para preservar ciertos sitios importantes con el objetivo de conservar esa emblemática biodiversidad insular. Por ejemplo: Ciénaga de Zapata, preservación ambiental en la Provincia de Matanzas, la rehabilitación del rio Almendares, Provincia de Habana.  

Hay que reconocer, comparando con otras islas del caribe, Cuba se considera fuertemente como un país altamente resiliente apuntando a diversos aspectos. En Cuba, existen programas de turismo resiliente por ejemplo. En Cuba, el Centro de Manejo de Reducción de Riesgos Naturales debe ser considerado como ejemplo regional, es decir las demás islas deberían copiar este modelo cubano, me refiero a este específico centro además en el contexto que estamos debatiendo.

Por otro lado, hay que reconocer que algunas perdidas de biodiversidad tienen que ver con los grandes cambios climáticos, por ejemplo la alta frecuencia de los huracanes en la zona caribeña, digamos que se trata de otros asuntos implicados a veces los cuales superan los esfuerzos gigantescos del Estado y también de la conciencia ciudadana, es decir la participación activa de las comunidades para proteger  la biodiversidad del país. 

Lo esencial de la pregunta abarca a una transición política gradual, o transiciones políticas graduales; es decir, cambios sistemáticos en el modo de hacer políticas en Cuba. En pocas palabras, cualquier sistema político tiene pro y contra – es decir, hay que tener mucho cuidado al utilizar ciertas paradigmas e indicadores porque no sería tan necesario dejar un sistema político y lanzarse en otro ciegamente o porque  otros lo están exigiendo. Para evitar grandes equivocaciones alarmantes, tratan de aplicar los 7 factores que yo he expuesto en este temático. Por ejemplo, hay una muy linda democracia en Chile por ejemplo sin embargo la alta desigualdad va escalando exageradamente y las manifestaciones estudiantiles son parte del orden del día; me hago entender.
 
La primera cosa que tenemos que entender  ya existe un tipo de civismo bastante fuerte en Cuba desde la fundación del régimen cubano, es decir los fundamentos existen para la protección no solamente de la biodiversidad sino también otros asuntos emblemáticos del país , se considera como una especie de cultura popular, si no hay equivocación nuestro en este decir pues estamos hablando de una explicita educación ciudadana de alta conciencia nacional, a nuestro juicio , un punto quizás que supera las necesidades de lanzar el país al desarrollo económico ; quizás las grandes potencias económicas del mundo están esperando para crear un boom económico, llenando el país con toda clase de turistas , muchas veces individuos realmente que irán a prestar ninguna atención a la conservación de la biodiversidad cubana ; lo cual es diferente a una clase de eco-turismo que no daña tanto el medio ambiente.

Pasa lo que pasa, lo que se necesitará en Cuba es Eco-eficiencia y Participación e implicación comunitaria creando un tipo de liderazgo a partir de líderes comunitarios independientes, elementos para construir las bases de los gobiernos municipales pero democráticos sin infringir la cultura cívica del pueblo cubano; es muy sensible y delicado pero hay que saber el manejo de aquello. 

En realidad, Cuba es la única  Isla del Caribe con más hectáreas de selva tropical, que puede ser un absorbente de dióxido de carbono gigante para el Caribe si un programa estatal de desarrollo ecológico de base se implementa mediante la modificación de la actual explotación de los recursos naturales de manera más responsable y eco-eficiente con el fin de preservar una mejor calidad de vida, en un ambiente más saludable para una isla más verde propicia exclusivamente al ecoturismo.


QQuestion by Ms Fatima Enith Prado

Nos puede explicar por favor como piensa usted, la importancia que usted esta dando a los gobiernos municipales puede ser una ayuda para resolver los problemas no solamente de riesgo de medio ambiental sino tambien de transporte en la ciudad de Bogota?

Ms Fatima Enith Prado Especialista en Psicologia Laboral | Norsouthed Cooperative Innovation Foundation
Colombia

APosted on 30 May 2015

Respuesta a su pregunta
Por favor rápidamente, seamos realistas al considerar su ciudad, una metrópoli del siglo XXI comparándola con la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, Buenos Aires de Argentina o la ciudad de Sao Paulo en  Brasil, automáticamente usted se está posicionando a un punto crucial con el fin de empezar a un porcentaje mínimo como ligar eficientemente con este problemático de transporte público. Que se deberían haber construido hace un par décadas atrás pero por un motivo quizás urbano-socio-político pues no ha sido edificado.

Ahora si se puede aterrizar la nave, es menester aplicar el modelo de entendimiento cívico que yo estoy describiendo, poniendo en una posición estratégica sostenible el rol de los gobiernos municipales en una ciudad como Bogotá, no porque van a independizar este nivel de gobernabilidad pero se necesita gobiernos municipales que no son exageradamente dominados por el gobierno central y tampoco por los poderes legislativo y judicial. Además hay que intentar reducir pacíficamente y de manera automática las influencias negativas de los partidos políticos tradicionales sobre las alcaldías de la metrópoli.  

¿Como?


Aplicando los 7 factores que yo he mencionado en este temático.  Si se logra, es más fácil esperar alcaldes y concejales quienes han sido en primer lugar líderes comunitarios. Por otro lado, con la participación ciudadana, se alcanzara el empoderamiento de líderes femeninos y jóvenes para acceder al poder municipal.

Es menos enigmático lograr el desarrollo sostenible, reduciendo los riesgos de medio ambiental,  mejorando el sistema de transporte urbano y previniendo los riesgos de desastres naturales en un punto de vista socio-político económico al fortalecer el poder de los gobiernos municipales a través de métodos transparentes edificados sobre el civismo en acción, reitero considerando crucialmente la manera que yo lo he expuesto en detalles. Se necesita, es decir, una reeducación cívica por lo menos a nivel municipal con el fin de mejorar el bienestar y la seguridad de los que viven en la metrópoli colombiana.

Debe existir un acercamiento positivo entre el ciudadano y el alcalde o el concejal , se logra implementando un civismo decente para una innovadora política municipal que promueve los negocios comunitarios e incluso la importancia un sistema de transporte publico edificado sobre la eco-eficiencia, automáticamente estamos estableciendo una confianza entre el gobernante municipal y el ciudadano gobernado.

Además, supongo que las alcaldías de Bogotá con el soporte del gobierno central deberían tener suficientes recursos económicos para establecer cooperaciones técnicas con las municipalidades de Tokio ya que Tokio es una metrópoli repleta de personas pero el transporte no parecería caótico. Quizás sería necesario aplicar un poco el modelo de transporte público de Tokio aunque sea por un % abordable con la realidad local bogotana sin grandes ilusiones por ello, en nuestro pragmatismo político, preferimos en primer lugar poner énfasis sobre la importancia del civismo decente, lo cual no hace falta en la sociedad japonesa, también otra hipótesis política.    

Por favor intenta de seguir estas páginas pero está escrito in inglés: http://citiscope.org/habitatIII/explainer/2015/03/what-habitat-iii    
http://unhabitat.org/urban-themes/safety/
http://unhabitat.org/urban-themes/mobility/
Estas páginas en español: http://www.metrosantiago.cl/ciudad , http://www.buenosaires.gob.ar/subte
Esta página esta en portugués e inglés: http://www.metro.sp.gov.br/

QQuestion by Ms Jetto Jean louis

1- How to get municipal governments committed to solve property floods in some Canadian cities?

2- i want to know if your program proposal can be useful to improve city halls responsibilities for green parks in metro Port-au-Prince?

Ms Jetto Jean louis computer technician | netpak
Canada

APosted on 30 May 2015

Response for question -1
This question does not surprise me because based on a study done by a couple of experts at the University of Waterloo, it sounds that Flood resilience is a need for some major Canadian cities. Some homeowners have been affected severely by floods because of a lack of preparedness.
It suffices to say that some Canadian mayors and councillors in affected cities are not civic minded enough so as to get engaged and committed to their constituents when facing natural disasters , in that specific case we mean flood disaster. That is, we attempt to develop an answer focusing on the role of municipal governments which ought to get a better responsibility with regard to that matter without bewildering the situation with what ought to be done by the provincial or federal government. The question raised the crucial importance of municipal governments which have pretended not be liable for helping adequately their constituents (homeowners) that are victims of flood disaster, saying that other sectors of the society are responsible for assisting affected people however we think that there is a breach of fundamental principles that stipulate municipal government disaster risk management considering the primordial factors of civics in action in the context I have described it in this paper. In essence, elected mayors and councillors ought to be more committed to their cities, districts, ridings and neighbourhoods disaster risk reduction in a sense that explains their concern to environmental protection.
Further there are two points to raise about this question.
1-    Councillors and mayors of Canadian cities affected by extreme rainfalls which have caused houses to be flooded especially poor neighbourhoods ought to pay attention to the Federal Government calls for national disaster mitigation program proposals for the period of 2015-16 for more information please following this link: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=965229
2-    The second point at issue is that voter turnout in municipal elections in major Canadian cities like Toronto for instance, people do not go out enough to vote therefore mayors and councillors do not really represent a large % of city dwellers in essence it is difficult that they would be concerned about that type of major environmental problems like flooding houses, disaster risk reductions, disaster mitigation, etc. It is a conundrum to figure out whom Mayors and councillors really represent in the city of Toronto for instance, a multicultural metropolis replete of people coming from everywhere in the world. So there is a lack of civics in action at municipal government level to solve problems for example linked with the formulated question.   
The lack of concern of municipal government is clearer to comprehend if the reader attempts to follow this link: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2015/05/21/mediocre-efforts-by-canad_n_7397494.html
http://www.ontario.ca/law-and-safety/flood-forecasting-and-warning-program
http://www.getprepared.gc.ca/cnt/hzd/flds-eng.aspx

I want to know if your program proposal can be useful to improve city halls responsibilities for green parks in metro Port-Au-Prince?
Response to question-2
Metro Port-Au-Prince is a very complex urban risk area that needs to turn to a safe and resilient city considering a bunch of factors, we suppose that if certain obligatory jobs are done at municipal levels based on municipal government commitment and community engagement; that will change that city images in a long run.
Establishing civic education in primary and secondary schools in the sense we have mentioned it in this paper.
Establishing a cooperation with Metro Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) municipalities with Metro Port-Au-Prince municipalities for urban innovation useful to urban sustainable development.
Establishing civic education within municipal buildings to boost community engagement and neighbourhood participation for communal sustainable development.  
Metro Port-Au-Prince needs sound and participative postmodern municipal governments, in the paper we have already explained this point. Further at municipal levels community businesses creation can work faster because there are more possibilities for leadership commitment and community engagement applying the techniques mentioned in our paper.
At municipal levels and among community leaders as well, the question is that what type of “social leverage” mandatory to get impoverished people in this Haitian Capital city educated enough but not beyond their resources and capabilities why their community environment ought to be protected
Regarding green areas in Metro Port-Au-Prince, this initiative is not impossible but it does not exclude the Metro Port-Au-Prince conundrum considering its high level of poverty and sewage problem although it should not be an excuse for implementing that initiative because these same green areas can be also a source of income for some inhabitants nonetheless that depends on what type of green areas we are expecting to build. We suggest that city planners in Metro Port-Au-Prince should be very active to the UN major initiative for world urban areas by following these links:  http://unhabitat.org/habitat-iii/  http://unhabitat.org/urban-initiatives/
They can also follow this entity initiative: http://citiscope.org/topics/environment  http://citiscope.org/topics/mobility
Metro Port-Au-Prince urgently needs what it is so called “Build Back Better” but by making new municipal by-laws and new construction codes thus that can only be possible with municipal government reforms through transferring of power and funds. Municipal Leaders in Port-Au-Prince ought to follow strictly and fully the Sendai Framework with regard to “Build Back Better” after major natural disasters.
Mayors and councillors  , Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Tourism might work together in order to figure out what type of industries that can be propitious to the city dwellers considering many factors that impede a sound and sustainable development in a sense that Metro Port-Au-Prince environment is degrading over and over. It is important to look at other Islands in the regions in terms of progress to maintain city green areas, resilience, safety, etc. However they ought be realistic , just see how to copy the fashion it is done well in the neighbouring and bordering State , further in Cuba, perhaps Jamaica and Puerto Rico but not exactly the Bahamas; do not be illusionists!
What should be done to convert shanty towns to green areas without ousting wrongfully poor occupants that have been dwelling therein for decades? Applying civics, in the fashion we have expounded it to shun Human rights violation when taking severe government actions.

 

 

QQuestion by Mr Ruben Alejandro Morales

Como se puede hacer para aplicar en Chile , especialmente en el norte del pais un sistema para ayudar mas rapido a los damnificados en caso de desastre natural y en caso de inundacion en Santiago dando mas poderes a las municipalidades?

Mr Ruben Alejandro Morales Supervisor de Obras publicas | Senado de Chile
Chile

APosted on 28 May 2015

Esa es una excelente pregunta. En primer lugar hay que poner énfasis sobre el punto de que Chile ha sido un país con una resistencia fortalecida respecto a los desastres naturales, es decir fácilmente puede ser un ejemplo práctico para cualquier otro país del mundo latino americano, especialmente para los países de Centro América y también para Venezuela, Perú y Colombia.
La mejor forma para ayudar a los damnificados a nuestro juicio, es crear programas de prevenciones en el ámbito municipal, es decir  hay que fortalecer los gobiernos municipales los cuales tienen un acercamiento con las comunidades que pueden ser afectadas por los riesgos de desastres naturales.
Respecto a inundación durante invierno en la zona metropolitana de Chile según el temático que yo presento. Se puede destacar que los más vulnerables son las personas que viven en barrios más desfavorecidos como suele acontecer en otros países en vía desarrollo – Ahí viene la importancia crucial de fortalecer los gobiernos municipales en aquellas zonas más afectadas , incrementando no solamente los fondos municipales para prevención de riesgos de desastre natural sino también incrementando la participación comunitaria a través de las Juntas vecinas para incentivar la presencia de líderes comunitarios especialmente jóvenes y líderes femeninos. Ahí se habla de una nueva forma del civismo que servirá también para el cuido del medio ambiente y también la reducción de los riesgos de desastre natural. Además se necesita también una participación de las compañías de seguros por diferentes motivos considerando el tipo de sistema económico que se ha ido planteando en Chile en los últimos 25 años aunque esto coincide a otro tema un poco diferente lo cual yo puedo desarrollar en el futuro.
Pienso que también el problema mayor está  en la zona norte del país ya que muchas veces se tratan de personas víctimas de desastre natural pero con muy pocos recursos aunque se considera enormemente la intervención rápida del gobierno central – Además hay que poner énfasis sobre la ubicación geográfica frágil del país chileno,  lamentablemente desastres naturales van a ser a menudo más frecuentes  ya viene la importancia del fortalecimiento de la resistencia en caso de desastres pero estamos ofreciendo un nuevo método para atenuar problemas dentro las comunidades afectadas , es decir como la gente puede ser auto-suficiente cuando viene lo malo. ¿Como?  Prestando atención a los 7 factores que yo he mencionado a cerca del civismo en acción.   
Visita esta página para amplia información: http://www.mma.gob.cl/correosvirtuales/mma/
Planes de descontaminación Atmosférica Estrategia 2014-2018 –  Esto es una buena iniciativa del gobierno central, especialmente para la ciudad de Santiago. También un proyecto de Ley de Biodiversidad y Áreas Protegidas -   Con más áreas verdes y reduciendo cementos en Santiago, esto también ayudara para atenuar las inundaciones. http://portal.mma.gob.cl/


QQuestion by Mr Fresnel Olibrice

How your topic can be useful to make changes in the role of municipal governments in the border areas between Haiti and Dominican Republic to to reduce many environmental problems?

Mr Fresnel Olibrice Founder President of NGO ACHE | NGO ACHE INTERNATIONAL
Tokelau

APosted on 28 May 2015

First of all, the majority of problems occurring at Haitian Dominican border of the Island of Hispaniola have been handled at central government levels only, in reality it does not matter which State we are speaking about, the Haitian State or the Dominican State no big difference in that context. That is, a tradition that has existed for many decades.

Now it is very difficult to split along this said Border strong and sensitive immigrant problems and environment problems. "Everything is quite mixed up"

But to be specific about your question, in the Dominican Republic, ambitious efforts have been made compared to Haiti at municipal levels, especially visiting that website www.fedomu.org.do  that is , the Dominican part of the border  is in a better position to apply the paradigms I have been speaking about to tackle environmental problems with success in a long run for the next 15 to 20 years.

Paradoxically, if one attempts to comprehend the key words applying in our session, it is not mistaken that it is a method that can be applied to get people involved directly so as to strengthen municipalities at the Haitian part of the border. Further the essence of this topic can help people in the bordering communities to trust the role of municipal government for instance during a disaster for quick and efficient intervention and preparedness.

Another point at issue is that  where there is a crisis of society, of representativeness, of governance that is, citizens do not believe almost any more in the type of current leadership of Central government therefore  it is compulsory to apply a new type of civics , exactly the fashion I have attempt to define it.

In that same vein, people at the border or somewhere else in the country, will be alphabetized why the protection of the environment is their own responsibility as well; by counting a bit more on their capabilities  and the transparency of their municipal governments built by their own community leaders , automatically a trust will be existed. 

Further do not forget to empower women dwelling in the bordering communities. Moreover Civic and  informal environmental Schools within municipalities are needed to train community leaders - Integrate in elementary and  High Schools curriculum environmental training. Link: www.christianaid.org.uk/learn-disaster-primary  

THIS SESSION CONCLUDED ON

31
May
2015