Tornado

Tornado

Waterspout, twister, vortex

On May 22, 2011, a tornado rated as the most intense on the Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale, an EF5, cut a 6-mile-long (9.7-kilometer) gash through the densely populated Joplin metro area, home to more than 50,000 people.
National Institute of Standards and Technology
In any windstorm, tornadoes included, the roof needs to be secured — this is due to the uplift, the same physics that allows an aircraft to fly.
Conversation Media Group, the
2021

This report discusses losses from natural hazards are escalating dramatically, with more properties and critical infrastructure affected each year. Although the magnitude, intensity and/or frequency of certain hazards has increased, development

AGU Advancing Earth and Space Science
Rising temperatures and risky development contribute to heightened exposure to earthquakes, flooding, tornadoes, hurricanes and wildfire.
AGU Advancing Earth and Space Science
A series of maps developed by NIST indicates the wind speeds from tornadoes that certain buildings should be designed to withstand, in miles per hour.
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Ten years ago today - on April 27, 2011 - Alabama suffered the largest and costliest tornado outbreak in state history.
Advance Local
2021

This paper proposes a methodology based on a multi-layer Monte Carlo simulation to model a two-stage recovery process for residential buildings: functional downtime due to delay and functional downtime due to repair. The delay portion of the model was

International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (Elsevier)
After tornadoes struck, NOAA researchers captured aerial photos and video of storm damage from hard-to-reach locations using remote-controlled, uncrewed aircraft.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration