This report synthesises research and knowledge on climate change impacts and adaptation under higher-end climate warming scenarios, defined as global warming exceeding 2°C relative to pre-industrial times. It explores the implications and risks of exceeding 2°C, the challenges and opportunities of adaptation to such a warmer world, and the extent to which risks can be reduced if warming is held as close as possible to 1.5°C.
The report examines the impacts and adaptation relevant to a number of areas addressed by policy: food, freshwater, forestry, coastal protection, nature conservation, urban areas and infrastructure, human health and foreign policy. It also considers cross-cutting impacts, challenges and opportunities for transformational change as a response to multiple, interacting risks.
The report findings are a result of research conducted by three European Commission funded projects: HELIX (High-End cLimate Impacts and eXtreme); IMPRESSIONS (IMPacts and REsponses from highend Scenarios: Strategies for Innovative SolutiONS) and RISES-AM (Responses to coastal climate change: Innovative Strategies for high-End Scenarios - Adaptation and Mitigation).