This report explores how climate action, in line with Romania’s goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2050, interacts with the country’s growth and development path. Urban climate projections show a substantial increase in urban heat by 2050 (50 percent increase in the number of heat-wave days in a high-emissions climate scenario) and it is estimated that fatalities associated with extreme temperature events already increased 25 percent in the 1991–2018 period. The combined threats of water scarcity, increased variability of precipitation and increasing heat pose significant challenges to the agricultural, land-use and forestry sectors. With agriculture accounting for around 20 percent of labor and 4 percent of GDP, it holds an important socio-economic place in Romania. Romania has the potential to significantly improve this situation while decarbonizing the economy towards the climate objective of reaching Net0@2050.
This publication recommends the following:
- A dramatic increase in the electrification of the economy is essential to reduce the current inefficient use of carbon-based fuels and increase energy security.
- In addition to addressing supply side challenges, Romania needs to focus on increasing energy efficiency across the economy by providing incentives, establishment of financing instruments and reduction in existing policy disincentives.
- Focus on building and protecting human capital.
- A successful transition will require a further deepening of planning and execution of climate action both across and throughout all administrative levels.
- The importance of continuous monitoring of progress and re-assessment of options will be invaluable in continuing to meet (and exceed) targets and to adjust as current uncertainties become clearer and new ones develop.