While many studies argue that socio-economic factors are significant contributors to community resilience, this study found that cultural and historical connections, 'connecting to place', was a significant factor that helps people survive and adapt. As such, relocating communities to safer locations is not always the answer and may contribute to other problems. This study supports designs for temporary shelters and facilities following flood disasters through community-led design processes that meet the needs of communities without disconnection from place, temporarily or permanently.
Disasters contribute to the complexity of urban problems such as water and sanitation, waste management and infrastructure damage. For some countries illegal settlements, slum areas, urbanisation, internal migration and employment dislocation exacerbate these problems. A common urban disaster that occurs in many Asian and Pacific countries is flooding, especially during the rainy season. Floods in Jakarta affect vulnerable communities situated on the riverbank of the Ciliwung River. Temporary shelters have been used in response, but they have not answered the needs of these communities.