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Towards a typology of nature-based solutions for disaster risk reduction
The paper reviews the scientific literature (2000–2021) on nature-based solutions for disaster risk reduction (NbS for DRR). Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is one of the most important societal challenges addressed under the umbrella term nature-based solutions (NbS). One NbS approach that specifically addresses risk reduction is ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR). However, there are other approaches, such as integrated fire management or protective forests, which directly aim at reducing the risk of specific natural hazards. Other approaches, such as ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA), do not have DRR as a primary goal, but contribute to it in the form of synergies and co-benefits.
The authors also select all original research articles (n = 114) that refer to NbS for DRR projects or interventions conducted in a specific geographic area and analyze them in terms of (1) approach applied; (2) natural hazards mitigated; (3) ecosystem services for DRR provided; (4) geographic and biophysical site conditions, and (5) measures and techniques used. The analysis forms the basis for developing a typology of NbS for DRR, which we present for discussion. This typology helps scientists, policymakers, planners, and other stakeholders to gain a systematic overview of the NbS for DRR approaches currently addressed in the literature and to advance systematization of these approaches.