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Climate risk country profile: Thailand
This profile is intended to serve as a public good to facilitate upstream country diagnostics, policy dialogue, and strategic planning by providing comprehensive overviews of trends and projected changes in key climate parameters, sector-specific implications, relevant policies and programs, adaptation priorities and opportunities for further actions. Thailand is the 20th most populous country in the world, located at the center of Southeast Asia with a land area of 513,120 km. Thailand submitted its Third National Communication to the UNFCCC in 2018, its Initial Nationally Determined Contribution in 2016 and its Updated Nationally Determined Contribution in 2020. Thailand is recognized as highly vulnerable to climate variability and change due to increasing natural hazards, such as heavy rainfall, floods, and droughts, as well as sea level rise impacts the country’s coasts. Thailand is focusing its adaptation efforts key sectors such as energy, water, transportation, agriculture, human settlements and public health.
Key messages include:
- Observations show temperature increases across Thailand since the mid-20th century and an increase in annual precipitation. Most of this increase occurs during the wet season.
- Floods are by far the greatest natural hazard facing Thailand in terms of economic and human impacts. Thailand is cited as one of the ten most flood-affected countries in the world. Drought and cyclone impacts also represent major hazards. All may intensify in future climate scenarios.
- Projections suggest that Thailand’s agriculture sector could be significantly affected by a changing climate, due to its location in the tropics where agricultural productivity is particularly vulnerable to temperature rises.
- The human impacts of climate change in Thailand remain dependent on the approach to adaptation adopted, but there is a significant risk that the poorest and marginalized groups will experience disproportionately greater loss and damage.