This profile is intended to serve as public goods to facilitate upstream country diagnostics, policy dialogue, and strategic planning by providing comprehensive overviews of trends and projected changes in key climate parameters, sector-specific implications, relevant policies and programs, adaptation priorities and opportunities for further actions. Mongolia is a landlocked country of East Asia characterized by unique ecosystems and cultures. The contribution of agriculture to Mongolia’s economy has declined in recent years, constituting 12% of GDP, compared to the 50% contribution from the service sector. Historical climate warming is believed to have taken place at some of the fastest rates in the world in Mongolia and other shifts in climate dynamics are already strongly impacting on lives and livelihoods. In response, Mongolia has engaged closely with international efforts to mitigate climate change and its impacts.
This profile provides a number of key messages regarding the future of climate risk for Mongolia, including:
- Mongolia has already experienced significant climate changes, with warming of over 2°C and declines in rainfall reported between 1940 and 2015.
- The intensity of extreme climate-driven hazards including heat wave, drought, and river flood, is expected to increase.
- Without concerted disaster risk reduction efforts and support to communities to adapt Mongolia’s poorest communities face significant damage and loss.
- Focus is needed on the interplay between climate changes and current development trends in Mongolia, unplanned development in flood exposed areas and air pollution issues could interact with climate changes to enhance health risks and inequalities.