The objective of this report is to provide a concise overview of available nature-based solution (NBS) assessment frameworks in the context of adaptation to climate change and disaster risk reduction, based on the information from literature and selected European cases. It looks at the potential and realised application of assessment frameworks for NBS in both ex-ante and ex-post phases as well as during implementation, generating output metrics in support of policy and decision-making as well as of practitioners' work. The report may also be used as guidance for the selection of an appropriate assessment approach for the various purposes within NBS projects.
This report recommends the development of a step-wise framework for designing user-oriented NBS assessments, building on key success factors and limitations identified in the literature. The framework consists of four recommended steps: 1) clear identification of the purpose and specific goal(s) and outputs that address stakeholder needs, 2) defining assessment characteristics balancing the purpose and output needs with resource considerations, 3) selection of elements to be included in the assessment, such as technical, environmental, social or/and economic and finally, 4) choice of the assessment approach or a mix of approaches (combined, embedded or used in sequence).