Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
Making development sustainable: The future of disaster risk management

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Figure 3.30 Top 20 countries and territories: relative population exposed to volcanic hazard
(Source: UNISDR, based on data from GAR 13 paperGVM, 2014a

GAR13 Reference GVM (Global Volcano Model). 2014a,Global Volcanic Hazards and Risk, Summary background paper. Background Paper prepared for the 2015 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR.
Click here to view this GAR paper.
The probability of ash fall can be estimated based on the geographical distribution of volcanoes and their eruption potential as well as the prevailing winds in different seasons (Figure 3.31).
Risk from ash fall can be estimated using the same approach as for other hazards. In the AsiaPacific region, Japan has the highest AAL associated with structural damage due to volcanic ash at more than US$11 billion, followed by Indonesia with almost US$6 billion. However, relative losses
are higher in smaller countries like Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea (Figure 3.32).28
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