Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
Making development sustainable: The future of disaster risk management

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Part I - Chapter 3
(Graham and Riebeek, 200619). Storm surges can be severely destructive, and losses are highly dependent on exposure, especially in areas without coastal protection works.
As in the case of earthquakes, the absolute AAL from tropical cyclones (wind and storm surge) is concentrated in large countries like Japan and the United States of America, which have a large stock of exposed capital (Figure 3.16). However, this is equivalent to only 1 and 2 per cent (respectively) of their capital investment. In contrast, while the AAL in the Philippines is less than a quarter of that of the United States of America, it is equivalent to almost 12 per cent of the former’s capital investment. With the exception of SIDS, the Philippines and Madagascar are the countries with the largest proportion of their capital investment at risk, again highlighting the importance of prospective disaster risk management.
Accurate estimates of storm surge risk require detailed data on exposure and the morphology of the seabed. As such, detailed risk assessments are necessary in areas prone to storm surges, such as Belize City (Box 3.2).
The global AAL for tsunamis is estimated at US$530 million. This figure is significantly lower than that associated with other hazards due to the fact that tsunami impacts are very localized along coasts and that while tsunamis are highly destructive, they are also highly infrequent.
More than 80 per cent of tsunami events are caused by earthquakes. However, other phenomena such as submarine and sub aerial landslides or volcanic eruptions can also produce or contribute to tsunami occurrence. For example, the 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami, which killed 2,182 people (EM-DAT, 201420), was caused by a
(Source: UNISDR with data from Global Risk Assessment and the World Bank.)
Figure 3.16 Top 15 countries: Tropical cyclone AAL in relation to capital investment (excluding SIDS)
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