Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
Making development sustainable: The future of disaster risk management

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Part III - Chapter 12
lost between 1930 and 2003 (Butchart et al., 2010

Butchart, S.H.M. et al. 2010,Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines, Science, Vol. 328, No. 5982, pp. 1164-1168. doi: 10.1126/science.1187512.. .
). Globally, a total of 90 per cent of reef locations are projected to experience severe bleaching by 2050 (Figure 12.14).
The destruction of planetary systems promises the ultimate kata-strophe. Under the most stark projections, the planet will have lost all its glaciers and have sterile oceans within just a few hundred years. There is no doubt that there will always be winners and losers in the shifting equations of overwhelmed planetary systems. But current assumptions regarding social and economic development and urbanization will hold little water. It is still unclear whether or not the plethora of local initiatives promoting green infrastructure, renewable energy, biodiversity restoration and other areas can gain traction quickly enough to change course. Even if it is too little, too late, these initiatives still provide hope. Ultimately, the key question is how to protect a planet that provides the basis for human and social wellbeing without simply protecting a paradigm that is currently destroying it.
Figure 12.14 Projections of coral reef decline
(Source: van Hooidonk et al., 2013.)
1 (accessed 11 January 2015).
World Bank data:
There is some debate as to the definition of the exact values that constitute these planetary boundaries. Moreover, researchers are in agreement that not all boundaries apply globally, and instead it is local conditions that will define when critical thresholds have been reached. Moreover, there is some difficulty in interpreting the data for policymaking, and assigning arbitrary acceptable limits may create new risks ( journal/v461/n7263/full/461447b.html). Despite these caveats, the debate on planetary boundaries has been a useful dooropener to a more profound debate on unsustainable current consumption patterns. For more information on the discussion of planetary boundaries, see specials/planetaryboundaries/index.html.
4 (accessed 11 January 2015).
350 ppm has been identified as the limit if global warming is not to exceed 2°C, where ppm = parts per million, i.e. the ratio of the number of gas molecules to the total number of molecules of dry air.
The largest emitters since 1990 are (in order of magnitude) China, the United States of America, the Russian Federation, India and Japan (IEA, 2013

IEA (International Energy Agency). 2013,CO2 Emissions from fuel combustion, Highlights. IEA Statistics. Paris.. .
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