Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
Making development sustainable: The future of disaster risk management

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to a large network of community organizations across the globe that successfully negotiate tenancy rights and access to infrastructure and services for inhabitants of informal settlements (Patel and Mitlin, 2001

Patel, Sheela and Diana Mitlin. 2001,SPARC, the National Slum Dwellers Federation and Mahila Milan, IIED Working Paper 5 on Poverty Reduction in Urban Areas.. .
Many governments now have policy frameworks in place to upgrade and regularize informal settlements, which may include the installation of risk-reducing infrastructure such as drainage and slope stabilization. However, as of 2011 around 40 per cent of low-income countries reporting against the HFA did not invest in reducing risk in vulnerable urban settlements (UNISDR, 2011b

UNISDR. 2011b,Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters: Mid-Term Review 2010-2011, Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR.. .
). In 2013, only some 60 per cent of low-income countries and less than 40 per cent of middle-income countries provided safe land and housing for lowincome households and communities (UNISDR, 2013a

UNISDR. 2013a,Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: From Shared Risk to Shared Value: the Business Case for Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR.. .
). In other contexts, policy still focuses on eradication or relocation (Box. 11.4), which may further exacerbate risks and vulnerabilities.
Figure 11.5 Progress in managing risk in urban environments
HFA Core Indicator 4.4: Planning and management of human settlements incorporate disaster risk reduction elements, including enforcement of building codes.
(Source: UNISDR with data from the HFA Monitor.)
Figure 11.6 Social housing redefined: Quinta Monroy, Iquique, Chile
(Source: Tadeus Jalocha and Christobal Palma.)
planning and management in itself, particularly in higher-income countries, or has occurred in the context of other frameworks, especially in climate change adaptation, rather than the disaster risk reduction sector.
Building on a tradition of supporting household and community efforts in informal urban development that began in the 1960s (Turner, 1972

Turner, John. 1972,Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process, New York: Macmillan.. .
), there are numerous ongoing examples of innovative urban practices that may have risk reduction co-benefits. For example, an innovative approach to social housing in northern Chile provides families with half a house and lets them build the other half within a defined structure but according to their own priorities and means (Figure 11.6). In the north of Argentina, the Tupac Amaru social movement mobilizes low-income families to become the construction force behind their own community developments, complete with their own brick kilns and metalworking factories (McGuirk, 2014

McGuirk, Justin. 2014,Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture, Verso Books.. .
). In India, the National Slum Dwellers Federation has grown from a small, one-slum advocacy group
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