Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
Making development sustainable: The future of disaster risk management

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the subsequent losses and impacts will become a societal issue that can be subjected to social discourse and negotiation.
This can lead to enhanced accountability not only for realized disaster loss and impacts, but also for the generation and accumulation of future risks, through a combination of social demand, appropriate normative frameworks, voluntary standards and enhanced monitoring of progress against explicit and transparent benchmarks and targets.
A transformational force
As these and other innovations start to challenge the way disaster risk has been managed up to now, disaster risk reduction has the potential to become a truly transformational force.
The reduction of poverty, the improvement of health and education for all, the achievement of sustainable and equitable economic growth and the protection of the health of the planet now depend on the management of disaster risks in the day-to-day decisions of governments, companies, investors, civil society organizations, households and individuals. Strengthened disaster risk reduction is essential to make development sustainable.
Key features of GAR15
GAR15 is addressed to all those committed to sustainable development, reducing disaster risk and addressing climate change. The report contains a number of new features and enhanced content.
Disasters measured in human life years
In this edition, the concept of human life years is introduced as an alternative representation of disaster impact, as it provides a metric that describes the time required to produce economic development and social progress; time which is lost in disasters. The loss of human life years, be it through disasters, disease or accidents, is therefore a way of measuring setbacks to development that goes beyond conventional metrics such as
mortality and economic loss. This metric brings the real scale of disaster loss into clear focus, and its use as a common currency allows comparisons with other development challenges.
Globally comparable risk metrics
The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment. This now estimates the risks associated with earthquakes, tropical cyclone winds and storm surges, tsunamis and riverine flooding for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. Using the same methodology, arithmetic and exposure model to calculate risk probabilistically for all hazards enables risk levels to be compared between countries and regions, across hazard types and with development metrics such as capital investment and social expenditure.ii 
Volcanic hazard and risk
A major scientific review of volcanic hazard and risk has been produced for the GAR by leading national and international scientific institutions. For the first time, GAR15 includes a dedicated section on volcanic hazard and risk, which summarizes selected findings from this review.
Increased coverage of data on extensive risk
One of the principle contributions of the GAR series has been to reveal extensive risk through a pioneering approach in which countries are empowered to record their disaster losses systematically at all levels. The evidence base on extensive risk presented in GAR15 represents another significant step towards a global understanding of this risk layer. GAR15 now presents systematic and comparable disaster loss data from 85 countries and territories, compared to 56 countries and territories in 2013, 22 in 2011 and only 13 in 2009.iii 
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