Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
Making development sustainable: The future of disaster risk management

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Part II - Chapter 6
In India, the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM), constituted under the Disaster Management Act of 2005, bears national responsibility for human resource development, capacity building, training, and policy advocacy in the field of disaster risk management. Under this mandate, the Institute delivers a basic online course on comprehensive disaster risk management as well as specialized courses on community-based disaster risk reduction (CBDRR), climate change and disaster risk, earthquake risk management, safer cities, and gender aspects of disaster recovery and reconstruction (NIDM, 2013

NIDM (National Institute of Disaster Management). 2013,Annual Report 2012-2013, Compiled and edited by Anil K. Gupter. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.. .
). The NIDM has also published numerous online training manuals, including a step-by-step guide to the development of village disaster management plans (NIDM, 2012a

NIDM (National Institute of Disaster Management). 2012a,Village Disaster Management Plan, Authored by Ajinder Walia and Sushma Guleria. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.. .
), train-the-trainer modules on flood risk mitigation and management (NIDM, 2012b

NIDM (National Institute of Disaster Management). 2012b,Flood Risk Mitigation and Management: A Training of Trainers (TOT) Module, Authored by Dev Ashutosh, PhD. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.. .
) and on urban risk mitigation (NIDM, 2014

NIDM (National Institute of Disaster Management). 2014,Training Module on Urban Risk Mitigation, Authored by Chandrani Bandyopadhyay. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.. .
), and a manual on psychosocial care in disasters (Satapathy and Subhasis, 2009

Satapathy, Sujata and Bhadra Subhasis. 2009,Disaster Psychosocial and Mental Health Support in South & South-East Asian Countries: A Synthesis, Journal of South Asia Disaster Studies, Vol. 2, No.1 (June).. .
In some countries, local structures for disaster risk reduction have been set up in parallel to local government, further undermining the effectiveness of both. And while the arrangements for disaster risk governance in many countries echo the HFA by explicitly calling for community involvement, most of the progress in community-based or local-level disaster risk reduction has been restricted to specific short-term projects or programmes, often supported by non-governmental organizations. Community and local-level disaster risk management has perhaps become another hyper-reality: it appears to have become mainstream and ubiquitous at all levels, while in reality community empowerment has been more symbolic than real (Maskrey, 2011

Maskrey, Andrew. 2011,Revisiting community-based disaster risk management, Environmental Hazards, Vol. 10, Issue 1: 42-52.. .
6.5 Weak regulatory capacity
Effective regulation and dedicated investments in corrective disaster risk management have enabled many high-income countries to reduce their disaster risk. However, many low and middle-income countries lack the necessary regulatory quality for norms and standards to be applied effectively.
The HFA Monitor also points to continued progress in the adoption of norms, standards and codes in areas such as land-use planning, building and environment.
In higher-income countries, laws, norms, standardsandregulationcanbe(andhavebeen)effective mechanisms for disaster risk management because of factors such as strong institutional frameworks, mechanisms for accountability and redress, free flows of information and a general culture of compliance (IFRC and UNDP, 2014

IFRC (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2014,Effective law and regulation for disaster risk reduction: a multi-country report, New York.. .
). The successful application of voluntary standards in particular requires a trusted certification process (GAR 13 paperUNECE, 2014

GAR13 Reference UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe). 2014,Standards and Normative Mechanisms for Disaster Risk Management, Background Paper prepared for the 2015 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR..
Click here to view this GAR paper.
The combination of effective regulation and major investments in corrective disaster risk management has enabled many high-income countries to successfully reduce their more
Box 6.2 India’s investment in capacity building
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