Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
Making development sustainable: The future of disaster risk management

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Chapter 1
(Source: Baird et al., 1975

Baird, A., P. O’Keefe, K. Westgate and B. Wisner. 1975,Towards an Explanation and Reduction of Disaster Proneness, University of Bradford Disaster Research Unit. Occasional papers: Number 11, August 1975. Bradford.. .
and Khan et al., 2008

Khan, Himayatullah, Laura Giurca Vasilescu and Asmatullah Khan. 2008,Disaster Management Cycle: A Theoretical Approach, Available from 08-6.pdf (last accessed 11 December 2014).. .
Figure 1.6 The original disaster management cycle and a current interpretation
other countries began to approach disaster risk management, at first in Latin America (Lavell and Franco, 1996) and later in other regions.
Many countries reformed their governance arrangements after major disasters (Wilkinson et al., 2014

Wilkinson, E., E. Comba and K. Peters. 2014,Disaster Risk Governance: Unlocking Progress and Reducing Risk, UNDP, BCPR and ODI.. .
), often adopting the principles pioneered in the Colombian system, and with crucial support from national or regional champions. For example, Nicaragua adopted new arrangements in 2000 following the 1998 disasters associated with Hurricane Mitch (Government of Nicaragua, 2005

Government of Nicaragua. 2005,Informe Nicaragua - CMRD-Japón 2005, Secretaría Ejecutiva del Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SE-SINAPRED).. .
), India followed suit after the 1999 Orissa super-cyclone and the 2001 Gujarat earthquake (Government of India, 2004

Government of India. 2004,Disaster Management in India, Government of India Ministry of Home Affairs.. .
), and Sri Lanka and Indonesia introduced reforms after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
At the same time, regional organizations such as CEPREDENAC, CDERA, SOPAC and the SAARC Disaster Management Centre, technical centres such as ADPC and time-bound regional programmes such as PREDECAN were created.8
Multilateral organizations, including the European Commission (ECHO), UNDP (BCPR) and the World Bank (GFDRR), likewise began to create specialized units which combined emergency management functions, post-disaster recovery as well as activities designed to reduce disaster risks.
The IDNDR, the Yokohama Plan of Action and the HFA served to consolidate, legitimize and empower this emerging disaster risk management sector globally, regionally and nationally. The three strategic goals of the HFA implicitly reflect the logic of the disaster management cycle. The central goal of strengthening institutions and governance arrangements supports the other two goals, which are designed to integrate disaster risk reduction into sustainable development and into effective emergency preparedness, response and recovery.
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