Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
Making development sustainable: The future of disaster risk management

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Part I - Chapter 5
Calculations are based on results of the UNISDR Global Risk Assessment for earthquakes, tropical cyclone wind and storm surge, and tsunami. Estimates of losses from flood events were generated by fitting empirical loss observations to parametric loss curves. These results should not be used for in-depth national analysis. For further information on the methodology, see GAR 13 paperWilliges et al., 2014

GAR13 Reference Williges, Keith, Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler, Junko Mochizuki and Reinhard Mechler. 2014,Modeling the indirect and fiscal risks from natural disasters: Emphasizing resilience and “building back better”, Background Paper prepared for the 2015 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR..
Click here to view this GAR paper.
, and Hochrainer-Stigler et al., 2014

Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan, Reinhard Mechler, Georg Pflug and Keith Williges. 2014,Funding public adaptation to climate-related disasters, Estimates for a global fund. Global Environmental Change 25 (2014): 87-96.. .
Information provided by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in support of GAR15. The simulations were carried out with JICA’s improved DR2AD model, an economic model that allows policymakers to assess the impacts of disasters and the benefits of disaster risk reduction investments at different points in time.
A similar calculation was performed for the 2009 Global Assessment Report; the findings from that time have been confirmed using 5 additional years of new data and the analysis has been updated.
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