Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015
Making development sustainable: The future of disaster risk management

background image
Figure 9.1 Glasgow city centre at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 21st century
(Source: National Library of Scotland; Ordnance Survey.5)
The high levels of deprivation in Calton also coincide with extensive disaster risk (Lindley et al., 2011

Lindley, Sarah, John O’Neill, Joseph Kandeh, Nigel Lawson, Richard Christian and Martin O’Neill. 2011,Climate change, justice and vulnerability, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. November 2011. .
). In addition to inequality and poverty, the inadequate design of the city’s sewage systems and small urban watercourses mean that local flooding occurs on a regular basis (Cashman, 2007

Cashman, Adrian. 2007,Sustainable Flood Risk Management: A Glasgow Case Study – from paralysis to praxis? Flood Risk Management Research Consortium (FRMRC), June 2007.. .
). Diminishing floodplains along the Clyde River have further exacerbated flood hazard in the area (Figure 9.1).
In 2002, Calton and Shettleston—another district in Glasgow where an estimated 80 per cent of the population live on welfare benefits and most do not have insurance (Tufail et al., 2004

Tufail, Sadia, Gaye McKissock and Harry Ads-head. 2004,Urban Watercourses in Glasgow’s East End: study to end flooding, improve environment & amenities, Case Study. Wastewater Treatment & Sewerage.. .
)—were among the areas worst affected by flooding (Cashman, 2007

Cashman, Adrian. 2007,Sustainable Flood Risk Management: A Glasgow Case Study – from paralysis to praxis? Flood Risk Management Research Consortium (FRMRC), June 2007.. .
). Shettleston also experienced repeated extensive flooding between 1993 and 2005 (Werritty et al., 2007

Werritty, Alan, Donald Houston, Tom Ball, Amy Tavendale and Andrew Black. 2007,Exploring the Social Impacts of Flood Risk and Flooding in Scotland, Social Research Environment Group. Research Findings No.32/2007.. .
). A survey on flood impacts in 2006 showed very low response rates from the emergency services in Shettleston compared to other affected locations (ibid.), possibly reflecting the disenfranchisement of its population.

After the 2002 floods, the Metropolitan Glasgow Strategic Drainage Partnership (MGSDP, 2012a

MGSDP (The Metropolitan Glasgow Strategic Drainage Partnership). 2012a,Successful partnership working: 10 years on, Briefing Note 10 - Winter 2012/13.. .
) implemented risk reduction measures against a 1-in-200-year flood, including the construction of 4.5 km of flood defence walls, six underground pumping stations, the creation of flood storage areas in three river basins and the planting of thousands of trees and bushes (MGSDP, 2012b

MGSDP (The Metropolitan Glasgow Strategic Drainage Partnership). 2012b,White Cart Water Flood Prevention Scheme, White Cart Water Project.. .
). However, in areas such as Calton and Shettleston, flood risk is as much about social vulnerability as it is about hazard.
of everyday risk; these are associated with poor health, crime, drug addiction, domestic violence and homelessness (Wilkinson and Marmot, 2003

Wilkinson, Richard and Michael Marmot. 2003,Social determinant of health: The solid facts, Second Edition. The World Health Organization. Copenhagen, Denmark.. .
), which in turn reinforce poverty.
The correlation between poverty and life expectancy is particularly pronounced in low-income countries. For example, Lilongwe, Conakry, N’Djamena, Banjul and Kigali all have life expectancies at birth of less than 50 years (Mitlin and Satterthwaite, 2013

Mitlin, Diana and David Satterthwaite. 2013,Urban Poverty in the Global South, Scale and Nature. USA and Canada: Routledge Publishing.. .
). In Chad, Sierra Leone, Burundi and Mali, under-five mortality rates among urban populations are staggeringly high at more than 150 per 1,000 live births, compared
to below 10 per 1,000 live births in middle and high-income nations (ibid.). But as the case of Calton shows, low life expectancy arises from these conditions of high everyday risk, even in the world’s richest countries.
There is now a common understanding that lowincome households and communities suffer a disproportionate share of disaster losses and impacts (UNISDR, 2009a

UNISDR. 2009a,Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Risk and Poverty in a Changing Climate, Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR.. .
; Rentschler, 2013

Rentschler, Jun E. 2013,Why Resilience Matters: The Poverty Impacts of Disasters, Policy Research Working Paper 6699. November 2013. The World Bank GFDRR, Washington, D.C.. .
; Lewis, 2011

Lewis, James. 2011,Corruption: The hidden perpetrator of under-development and vulnerability to natural hazards and disasters, Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 2011.. .
; Donner and Rodriguez, 2011;
6 Benson and Clay, 2004

Benson, Charlotte and Edward J. Clay. 2004,Understanding the Economic and Financial Impacts of Natural Disasters, Disaster Risk Management Series, No. 4. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.. .
; DFID, 2004

DFID (Department for International Development). 2004,Disaster risk reduction: a development concern, A scoping study on links between disaster risk reduction, poverty and development. Overseas Development Group, December 2004.. .
; UNDP, 2004

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2004,Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development, A Global Report. UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery.. .
; Wisner et al., 2003

Wisner, Ben, Piers Blaikie, Terry Cannon and Ian Davis. 2003,At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s vulnerability and disasters, 2nd Edition.. .
; Baker, 2012

Baker, Judy L. (Ed). 2012,Climate Change, Disaster Risk and the Urban Poor, Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.. .
; GAR 13 paperUNDP, 2014a

GAR13 Reference UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2014a,Disaster Risk Governance During the HFA Implementation Period, Background Paper prepared for the 2015 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR..
Click here to view this GAR paper.
Previous page Previous Section  
Contact us  |  Disclaimer  |  Our Partners  |  References  |  Acknowledgements  |  PreventionWeb |  WCDRR  |  © United Nations 2015.