Water and climate change adaptation, 9:
This perspective document focuses on the arid and semi-arid regions of the world and intends to provide input to address adaptation to the consequences of climate variability and change in the short and long term in these regions. It aims to: (i) provide an overview of the specific issues in the geographical settings of these regions, (ii) provide insight into subsector or specific interest, and (iii) identify enabling mechanisms that make adaptation possible within the arid and semi-arid regions.
This document specifically addresses the impact of climate change on the water sector in Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and South and Central Asian countries, with increased water stress, declining precipitation, increased temperatures, higher evaporation and drier conditions, all resulting in frequent droughts and floods, earlier snow melt and loss of glacial buffering against which basic adaptive measures don't prevent global agricultural production to decline and demand for water to increase. It also addresses multiple challenges facing urban areas under climate change conditions: vulnerability to sea level rise and storm damage for coastal cities and flooding from more intense rains and higher peak river flows for cities inland.