The authors studied the climate-sensitive socia protection (SP) programmes and policies that incorporate extreme temperature events from three high-income countries: the United States of America, the United Kingdom and France. Through case studies and key informant interviews in New York City (NYC), London and Paris, they investigated how these cities use SP programme elements to help vulnerable communities respond to cold waves (and heatwaves, to some extent). The insights from this research will provide lessons and recommendations for international organizations that can be applied and translated to a variety of contexts across the globe.
Recommendations for policymakers are:
- Adequately identifying risks and vulnerabilities;
- Designing appropriate and complimentary benefits and interventions;
- Forecast-based Action can be helpful for extreme temperature events,
- Engaging with the private sector and civil society.