Tsunami is the Japanese term meaning wave (‘nami’) in a harbour (‘tsu’). It is a series of travelling waves of extremely long length and period, usually generated by disturbances associated with earthquakes occurring below or near the ocean floor (IOC, 2019).
Landslide is the downslope movement of soil, rock and organic materials under the effects of gravity, which occurs when the gravitational driving forces exceed the frictional resistance of the material resisting on the slope. Landslides could be terrestrial or submarine (Varnes, 1978).
Ground gases generated in the ground from magma (molten or semimolten natural material derived from the melting of land or oceanic crust) include carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen halides (adapted from IVHHN, 2020 and USGS, no date).
Earthquake is a term used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the Earth (USGS, no date).
Earthquake ground shaking is the movement of the Earth’s surface produced by seismic waves that are generated when an earthquake occurs (adapted from USGS, no date).
Soil liquefaction occurs when soil is transformed from a solid to a liquid state as a result of increased pore pressure and reduced effective stress. It is typically caused by rapid loading of the soil during earthquake shaking (AGI, 2017).

Earthquake surface ruptures and fissures are localised ground displacements that develop during and immediately after an earthquake, where the fault which hosted the earthquake intersects the Earth’s surface. Surface ruptures represent the upward continuation of fault slip at depth, while fissures are smaller displacements, or more distributed deformation in and around the rupture area (adapted from USGS, no date and PNSN, no date).

Tectonic uplift and subsidence are the distributed vertical permanent ground deformations (warping) that result from earthquake displacements on a dipping (inclined) fault (Styron, 2019). This includes changes to the shoreline as a result of uplift and subsidence.

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