2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami

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The morning of December 26, 2004 saw the worst disaster in Indonesia’s history. A magnitude (M) 9.1 submarine earthquake occurred along the Indian Ocean subduction zone triggering a massive tsunami that destroyed 800 km of the coastal areas of Aceh Province with inundation observed as far as 6 km inland. Post disaster damage and loss assessment revealed staggering numbers on the calamity that include over 220,000 human fatalities and the destruction of 139,000 houses, 73,869 hectares of agricultural lands, 2,618 kilometers of roads, 3,415 schools, 104,500 small-medium enterprises, 13,828 fishing boats, 119 bridges, 669 government buildings, 517 health facilities, 1,089 worship places, 22 seaports, and 8 airports and airstrips (BRR-Agency for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias, 2009). Added to these statistics, more than half a million tsunami survivors were internally displaced and hundreds of thousands more lost their livelihoods.

Almost within hours, news on the tsunami devastation of Aceh spread quickly around the world eventually sparking an unprecedented massive global community emergency response and relief effort. Given the extremely urgent situation on the grounds, the Government of Indonesia agreed to allow international military personnel coming from Asian and European countries, the United States, and Australia, among others, to participate in the disaster response operations that also included more than 600 local, national, and international non-governmental, community-based, civil society, multi-lateral, and UN organizations. Some of these organizations continued to be involved in the post-tsunami reconstruction and recovery phase. The reconstruction costs were estimated to be US $4.9 billion while committed funds from various sources including the international community donors and the Government of Indonesia amounted to US$ 6.7 billion (BRR, 2009).

Before embarking on a painstaking reconstruction effort, the Government of Indonesia created a “Master Plan for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias, North Sumatra”. Parallel to this effort, the government also established the Agency for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias (BRR), an ad-hoc agency, first of its kind, mandated to implement and coordinate government-funded projects and coordinate donor- and NGO- funded projects from April 2005 to April 2009. The “Build Back Better” philosophy was adopted in the reconstruction effort. This guiding principle seeks to ensure that every reconstruction effort shall integrate the concept of Disaster Risk Reduction that would help reduce future disaster risk and build resilience. By the end of the project period, BRR had implemented and coordinated a total of roughly 12,000 projects.

Post-tsunami recovery and reconstruction efforts generally resulted in significant achievements in terms of housing, infrastructure, environment, agriculture, livelihood, health, local economy, education, and disaster management sectors. The enactment of Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 24/ 2007 concerning Disaster Management and the subsequent transformation of disaster management entities marked a major shift in disaster management paradigm in Indonesia which should help prepare Indonesia in responding more effectively to future disaster events.

2005

In the immediate aftermath of the enormous devastation and suffering caused by the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, UNEP established the Asian Tsunami Disaster Task Force. At the request of the governments of affected countries, the Task Force has

United Nations Environment Programme
2006

This report marks the year-end update on UNFPA’s activities following the massive devastation caused by the Indian Ocean Tsunami on December 26th 2004. Thanks to the outpouring of generous donor support, UNFPA has been part of the initial relief and

United Nations Population Fund
2005
This document is a summary by country of Care's recovery progress achieved in partnership with tsunami-struck communities in the 10 months following the disaster and and future plans.
CARE International
2008
Three years into the reconstruction effort, with vast amounts of aid having been spent, this reports aims to shed some light on questions regarding the ability of the early relief and reconstruction effort to alleviate poverty in Aceh. This report aims to offer the provincial government in Aceh and the reconstruction agency (BRR) a clearer picture of poverty in the post-conflict and tsunami environment in order to allow them to better design policies and programs to alleviate poverty in the province.
World Bank, the
2005

Following the launch of “Rapid Environmental Assessment Report” on 22nd February 2005, where UNEP advised countries hit by the tsunami to rebuild in a manner that preserves natural resources for the benefit of the local communities, a new report was

United Nations Environment Programme
2005
Consise set of guidelines detailing the reconstruction of housing affected by 2004 Indian Ocean and Tsunami. Main sections include: disaster and effects, construction and planning aspects for resistance against disasters, retrofitting of exiting buildings, repairs and strengthening of buildings.
India - government
2005
The tsunami of 2004, one of the worst natural disasters in recent times, hit six countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region. This publication narrates the story of how WHO responded, the tremendous challenges faced, and how they were overcome. Dramatic, poignant photographs, as well as boxes and anecdotes of individuals involved, highlight the very human face of the health sector response to the tragedy.
World Health Organization
2005
This issue of Humanitarian Exchange focuses on the emergency response to the devastation caused by the earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004.
Humanitarian Practice Network Overseas Development Institute
2006
This synthesis report is based primarily on 5 thematic evaluations undertaken by TEC member agencies during 2005/06. These focus on coordination of the international humanitarian response, the role of needs assessment in the tsunami response, the impact of the response on local and national capacities, links between relief, rehabilitation and development and the funding response to the tsunami.
Tsunami Evaluation Coalition
2005

The human impact of the tsunami on December 26 2004 was enormous: more than 175.000 people killed, almost 2 million affected and many people lost their homes. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand were worst hit with Indonesia bearing the greatest

Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters