Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011
Revealing Risk, Redefining Development
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What’s new in GAR11?

Risk trends by region and income group

An updated version of the powerful global risk model developed for GAR09 has been used to analyse trends in mortality and economic loss risk for major weather-related hazards such as tropical cyclones and floods. This identifies trends for geographic and income regions, showing where, why and which risks are increasing. This information is complemented by a new index, the DARA Risk Reduction Index (DARA, 2011


DARA. 2011. Indice de reduccion del riesgo. Análisis de capacidades y condiciones para la reducción del riesgo de desastres. Madrid, Spain: DARA.
; Lavell et al., 2010


Lavell, C., Canteli, C., Rudiger, J. and Ruegenberg, D. 2010. Data spread sheets developed in support of the DARA 'risk reduction index: Conditions and capacities for risk reduction'. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR.
), which measures and compares the capacity of different countries to address underlying risk drivers identified. Factors that condition resilience to disaster loss are also revisited.

GAR11 also outlines a range of emerging, very low-probability and hard-to-measure risks, which countries should begin to anticipate and prepare for.

More representative geographical coverage

All the national disaster databases used to analyse extensive risk in GAR09 have been updated for GAR11, providing two years of new data. In addition, there has been significant progress in building disaster loss databases, for example in Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala,Indonesia, Jordan, Mozambique, Panama,the Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen. This means a larger and more compelling analysis of extensive risk has been possible, with a more representative geographical coverage. New case studies also provide further insights into underlying risk drivers.

Disaster impacts on child welfare and displacement

GAR09 featured a detailed set of studies on the interactions between disaster risk and poverty. GAR11 builds on that analysis with a comprehensive study of how disasters impact on child welfare and development, and the implications of this on DRM policy. Additional case study material also opens a window on how disasters cause internal displacement.

Drought risk

GAR11 includes a specific focus on drought risk, one that is poorly understood and receives inadequate attention both nationally and internationally. After an overview of the challenges in identifying and measuring drought risk, a set of country case studies examines the development drivers that translate meteorological drought into losses and impacts in agriculture and other sectors. It also points to the adoption of standards for measuring drought risk that can contribute to improving its identification and management.

The 2009–2011 HFA Progress Review

Currently, 133 countries are reviewing their progress towards the objectives and goals of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) for 2009– 2011. At the time of writing, 82 countries and territories have submitted progress reports that provide unique insights into how governments themselves view disaster risk management. Governments reviewed their progress against each of the Priority Areas of the HFA, and also provided detailed information on challenges in critical areas such as investment and risk assessment with much supporting evidence. The 2009–2011 HFA Progress Review has already assembled the most important global reference currently available on disaster risk management at the national level.

Assessing the costs and benefits of DRM

Case studies from Colombia, Mexico and Nepal apply an innovative approach to risk modelling. By measuring and stratifying the full spectrum of extensive and intensive risks, they illustrate the real magnitude of recurrent and future maximum disaster losses faced by governments. This enables the visualization of the political and economic trade-offs, costs and benefits internalized in different strategies, and highlights why it is more cost-effective to invest today for a safer tomorrow.

Innovation in development practice

GAR11 reviews how governments are scaling up DRM by adapting existing development instruments, such as national planning, public investment systems and social protection mechanisms. It also critically examines other instruments where significant barriers still exist, such as land use planning, building codes and ecosystem management, and where new approaches need to be adopted based on partnerships with civil society.

Risk governance capacities

Finally, GAR11 has undertaken a critical review of the institutional and legislative arrangements for DRM at national and local levels, including a discussion of key issues such as political authority, decentralization and accountability, to provide guidance on how governments can adopt effective governance arrangements for DRM.

How to use this report

In addition to the print edition, GAR11 has also been designed as an interactive electronic report, structured around a set of background papers and databases provided by many institutional and individual contributors. This provides authoritative evidence for the findings and recommendations, and interactive applications allow users to explore this data for themselves.

Please visit GAR 2011 page in the web at

GAR 11 Background documents

GAR11GAR 2011 Contributing Papers

Please visit GAR 2011 page in the web at
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