Datasets

Understanding disaster risk data

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Data and statistics are important in understanding the impacts and costs of disasters.

Data and statistics are important in understanding the impacts and costs of disasters. Systematic data collection and analysis can be used to inform policy decisions to help reduce disaster risks and build resilience. Disaster-related datasets vary in the methodology they use to collect data, and as such vary in geographic scope and resolution of data. In recent decades, the systematic collection of data for disaster mitigation and prevention has rapidly increased. In the past, data needs were addressed on an ad hoc basis. However, there is a growing understanding of the importance of data collection and analysis can help both short and long-term development goals and assist in identifying and addressing disaster risks.

Access to data

We need data on hazard, exposure, vulnerability and losses in order to understand and assess disaster risk. In recent years, the field of risk assessment has been driven by the need for open data (GFDRR, 2014a). To be considered open, models and data should be both legally and technically open. As development and use of open tools grows, the need to clarify and standardise the meaning of "open" will become more pressing (GFDRR, 2014a).

Quality of data

There are a number of global and national datasets, however the quality of data collected varies. When evaluating data we are concerned with how thoroughly defined (resolution), complete and how believable (accurate) the data are. Global datasets tend to have very low resolution because they represent the aggregation (combination) of local level data or are based on assumptions about the homogeneity of data across large areas. Global datasets therefore tend not to be suitable for understanding disaster risk at a sub-national level. The accuracy of data can be affected by its age, whether it contains any bias and the consistency with which the data was collected. Lack of consistency of data collection makes comparing different datasets challenging.

The 2015 Global Assessment Report presents systematic and comparable disaster loss data from 85 countries and territories, compared to 56 countries and territories in the 2013 report, 22 in 2011, and only 13 in 2009 (UNISDR, 2015). The collection of data on disaster loss and damage has improved in recent years. However, there still remains a gap in systematic data collection for a selection of countries and longer-term historical records for many countries remain incomplete. Challenges still remain including the recording of losses in multi-hazard events (e.g. attributing cause of death to primary or secondary hazards), designating losses from longer duration events such as drought, and recording economic losses. Economic data reported and collected in disaster loss databases are very scarce and inconsistent; this common pitfall occurs in most databases including both national and international databases (UNISDR, 2015).

Disaster loss and damage datasets Disaster loss databases allow us to explore patterns and trends of disaster risk based on past events Understanding these patterns and trends can help us to anticipate future losses from extensive events (frequent events) as well as understand whether disaster risk management is effectively reducing this kind of risk. Disaster loss databases vary in their approach, including the threshold for what qualifies as a disaster, as well as in the methods used to collect the data. Disaster loss and damage datasets do not provide a full picture especially for less frequent and larger events which have not happened yet.

Data

EM DAT

Provided by: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters - CRED

This database helps identify the different types of disasters that are most common in a given country and that have had significant historical impacts on specific human populations. Besides from providing information on the human impact of disasters, such as the number of people killed, injured or affected, EM-DAT provides disaster-related economic damage estimates and disaster-specific international aid contributions. This information can help the national and global level stakeholders get an idea of risk profile of countries, comparison among countries supporting decisions for prioritizing support to various nations.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Disaster Inventory System - DesInventar

Provided by: UNISDR

UNISDR, the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction is promoting a global initiative to build national disaster databases with a well defined methodology. UNISDR uses for this purpose the DesInventar free, open source methodology and software. It permits the homogeneous capture, analysis and graphic representation of information on disaster occurrence and loss. The UNISDR methodology essentially proposes the collection of detailed and homogeneous data about disasters at all scales.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Sigma explorer

Provided by: SwissRe

This is a global natural and man-made disaster database. Events are recorded from 1970 to the present. In the data-base disasters are recorded on an event entry basis and collected information includes dead, missing, injured, and homeless along with detailed accounting of insured and uninsured damages.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

NatCatService

Provided by: MunichRe

This natural catastrophe loss database comprises some 30.000 data records. Approximately 1,000 events are recorded and analysed every year. The information can be used to document and perform risk and trend analyses on the extent and intensity of individual natural hazard events in various parts of the world. In addition, the database provides annual statistics from 2004 onwards, informative maps, focus analyses and comprehensive basic knowledge on natural hazards.

scope Global

access Close

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Data

Global Disaster Identifier Number (GLIDE)

Provided by: Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC)

This database is able to provide information on the date, duration, location, magnitude, source and a description of disastrous events. This information can be collected on the basis of the GLIDE number, date, disaster type, and country and will include information on human and economic loss

scope Global

access Open

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Data

SIAPAD - Andean Information System for Disaster Prevention and Relief

Provided by: CAPRADE (Andean Committee for Disaster Prevention and Relief - In Spanish: Comité Andino para la Prevención y Atención de Desastres)

This database is an access point that primarily provides tools for data and information discovery and visualization (depending on the institutional policies) to support decision making during the different stages of disaster risk management: prevention, mitigation, preparation and relief.

scope Regional

access Open

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Data

Disaster Management Information Center (DMIC)

Provided by: Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief

This database is a common platform for the organization, processing and delivery of information pertaining to the disaster and climate change risk reduction by the government authorities, its development partners, member of the civil society, other stakeholders, and the affected populations. The portal provides disaster related information at national level such as union factsheets, disaster incident database, hazard map and situation reports with detailed information on damages, affected people, health situation and government response.

scope National

access Open

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Data

Canadian Disaster Database

Provided by: Government of Canada - Ministery of Public Safety

The Canadian Disaster Database (CDD) contains detailed disaster information on more than 1000 natural, technological and conflict events (excluding war) that have happened since 1900 at home or abroad and that have directly affected Canadians. The database describes where and when a disaster occurred, the number of injuries, evacuations, and fatalities, as well as a rough estimate of the costs. Data is updated and reviewed on a semi-annual basis.

scope National (Canada)

access Open

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Data

CDEMA - Disaster events database

Provided by: Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency

The CDEMA Disaster events database contains information predominantly on CDEMAs participating states. Records in the database are collated from a range of sources in the affected countries. It contains disaster information on different events that have occurred since 1780 and it provides information on where the disaster occurred, the number of affected people and total economic losses. It also provides a Top 20 of disasters, sorted by total losses.

scope Regional

access Open

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Data

SHELDUS - Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States

Provided by: University of South Carolina

SHELDUS™ is a county-level hazard loss data set for the U.S. for 18 different natural hazard events types such thunderstorms, hurricanes, floods, wildfires, and tornados. For each event the database includes the beginning date, location (county and state), property losses, crop losses, injuries, and fatalities that affected each county. The database includes every loss causing and/or deadly event between 1960 through present.

scope National

access Open

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Data

U.S Natural Hazards Statistics

Provided by: NOAA, National Weather Service

This database provides statistical information on fatalities, injuries and damages caused by weather related hazards. These statistics are compiled by the Office of Services and the National Climatic Data Center from information contained in Storm Data, a report comprising data from NWS forecast offices in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Virgin Islands.This database provides statistical information on fatalities, injuries and damages caused by weather related hazards. These statistics are compiled by the Office of Services and the National Climatic Data Center from information contained in Storm Data, a report comprising data from NWS forecast offices in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Virgin Islands.

scope National

access Open

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Data

DANA - Damage and Needs Assessment system of Vietnam

Provided by: Central Committee for Flood and Storm Control

The database provides information at national level covering the period between 1989-2008. The disaster related information provided includes Hydro-Meteorological  disasters and both human and economic losses. The objective of DANA is to identify severity and extent of negative impacts of disasters on human life, economy and environment in disaster prone areas to prospone options for rehabilitation and recovery.

scope National

access Open

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Data

DIBI - Indonesian Disaster Information and Data

Provided by: National Agency for Disaster Management

The database provides information at national level covering the period between 1815 and 2012. The disaster related information provided includes all hazard types and both human and economic losses. The objective of database is to provide data for risk identification, policy formulation and decision making, ultimately ensuring that funds are channelled to risk reduction based on the trends and patterns identified through the database.

scope National

access Open

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Data

The Australian Emergency Management Knowledge Hub

Provided by: Emergency Management Australia

The Disasters Database contains records of all natural and non-natural disasters within Australia, and outside Australia where a number of Australians have been affected, dating from 1622 to the present day. The importance of maintaining disaster records is nationally recognised and has been reinforced in the Council of Australian Government’s report ‘Natural disasters in Australia: reforming mitigation, relief and recovery arrangements’, in which Commonwealth, States and Territories agree to ‘establish a nationally consistent system of data collection, research and analysis to ensure a sound knowledge base on natural disasters and disaster mitigation’.

scope National

access Open

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Data

Web SIG -DISASTER

Provided by: Science and Technology Foundation

This database aims to develop, exploit and disseminate a GIS database on disastrous floods and landslides which occurred in the Portuguese mainland since 1865 (earliest dates for available newspaper records). The database includes hydro-geomorphological disasters such as floods or landslides, which independently of the number of people, caused either casualties, injuries, or missing, evacuated or homeless people.

scope National

access Open

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Hazard catalogues In a hazard dataset (or catalogue) the most fundamental data define historical events, in particular their date, geographical location and extent, magnitude and maximum intensity. To enhance understanding of hazards, modelling methods are used in which to account for limited historical data, a synthetic event set (stochastic event set) is created. Such event set comprises a suite of computationally generated, synthetic hazard events with statistical characteristics consistent with the historical record as well as any other scientific information on the physical and environmental characteristics of the hazard in that region. Besides catalogue of hazard events, catalogue of other data that is required for modelling hazards are developed by experts. Most catalogues and event sets are developed region by region, although there are a number of global datasets of hazards being developed.

Source: GFDRR (2014a)

Data

Global CMT

Provided by: National Science Foundation

The Global Centroid-Moment-Tensor (CMT) project maintains and extends a catalogue of global seismic moment tensors. It consists of four main activities, which are systematic determination, accumulation of the results in the CMT catalogue, rapid determination of moment tensors for earthquakes with M>5.5 globally, and a curation of the CMT catalogue. The catalogue consists of more than 25,000 moment tensors for earthquakes since 1976.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

ANSS

Provided by: University of California

This database provides a world-wide earthquake catalogue that currently consists of earthquake hypocentres, origin times, and magnitudes. Future features include phase and amplitude readings, as well as first-motion mechanisms and moment tensors.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

GEM Global Seismic Hazard Datasets

Provided by: Global Earthquake Model

As part of GEM seismic hazard component five global datasets has been generated including: (i) Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900-2009), (ii) Historical Earthquake Catalogue and Archive (1000-1903), (iii) Ground Motion Prediction Equations, (iv)Active Faults Database and Tool, and (v) Geodetic Strain Rate Model.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

IBTrACS

Provided by: NOAA

This database provides a complete set of historical tropical cyclones and combines information from numerous tropical cyclone datasets. It simplifies inter-agency comparisons by providing storm data from multiple sources in one place, delivers data in popular formats to facilitate analysis, and checks the quality of storm inventories, positions, pressures, and wind speeds.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

HURSAT

Provided by: NOAA

The NCDC Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data set consist of raw satellite observations on historical tropical cyclones

scope Global

access Open

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Data

NCEP/NCAR

Provided by: NOAA

This database is able to reconstructs data on atmospheric winds, precipitation and temperature. Since 1948 it has given daily coverage (four times a day) on present long-term monthly means.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Warning Coordination Meteorologist WCM

Provided by: NOAA

This database provides charts of the latest preliminary storm reports, annual summaries, and links to comma-separated-value (csv) data files from the SPC severe weather database, which goes back to 1950.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Global Historical Tsunami

Provided by: NOAA

The database provides information on tsunami events from 2000 B.C. to the present in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, and the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Dartmouth Flood Observatory

Provided by: University of Colorado

This database provides tables and maps on areas affected by discrete flood events. The listing of the events is done on a comprehensive and global scale. The database is very accurate since events are added instantly after a disaster has taken place.

scope Global

access Open

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Socio-economic indicators  Socio-economic indicators help us to assess and monitor socio-economic vulnerability and resilience to disasters. Both poverty and inequality are key drivers and consequences of disaster risk, so indicators of these can allow us to assess and track changes in vulnerability over time. However, the resolution of these national indices can hide great disparity at the local level, emphasising why vulnerability and risk assessment needs to occur at all levels.

Data

World development indicators

Provided by: The World Bank

The primary World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially-recognized international sources. It presents global development data, and includes national, regional and global estimates.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Human Development Report Data

Provided by: UNDP - United Nations Development Programme

This database contains data from the Human Development Report, an annual publication by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme which measures human development across the globe.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

The Global Competitiveness Report

Provided by: World Economic Forum

The Global Competitiveness Report  assesses the competitiveness landscape of 144 economies, providing insight into the drivers of their productivity and prosperity. It is a comprehensive assessment of national competitiveness worldwide.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

The United Nations Statistics Division

Provided by: United Nations

The Statistics Division compiles and disseminates global statistical information and develops standards and norms for statistical activities. UNSD features official demographic statistics (Demographic Yearbook data collection system), it contains data related to the population and housing censuses, and the activities under the civil registration and vital statistics programme.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institue - Dataverse

Provided by: Harvard University

This database measures and tracks hunger globally and by region and country. It is calculated every year highlighting successes and failures in hunger reduction and providing insides into the drivers of hunger, and food and nutrition security.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Socioeconomic data and applications center (SEDAC)

Provided by: Columbia University

This database focuses on human interactions in the environment. It contains 187 socioeconomic and Earth science related datasets, divided in 16 themes: Agriculture; Climate; Conservation; Framework data; Governance: Hazards; Health; Infrastructure; Land Use; Marine and Coastal; Population; Poverty; Remote sensing; Sustainability; Urban and; Water.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Global Exposure Database for GAR

Provided by: UNEP-GRID, World Agency of Planetary Monitoring and Earthquake Risk Reduction, EU Joint Research Center, and Kokusai Kogyo

This database includes estimation on the economic value of the exposed assets, as well as their physical characteristics in urban and rural agglomerations. The global exposure database is developed at 1km spatial resolution at coastal areas and at 5km spatial resolution everywhere else on the globe. It includes economic value, number of residents, and construction type of residential, commercial and industrial buildings, as well as hospitals and schools. The global exposure database was developed for the Global Assessment Report (2015) and is based on a top-down approach where statistical information including socio-economic, building type, and capital stock at a national level are transposed onto the grids using geographic distribution of population data and gross domestic product (GDP) as proxies.

scope Global

access Closed

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Data

GED4GEM

Provided by: University Pavia, UN-HABITAT, CIESIN, Joint Research Centre, ImageCat inc., Geoscience Australia, Eucentre, and USGS.

The Global Exposure Database was developed for the Global Earthquake Model initiative. The database structure is built to contain information on buildings and people from the country-level all the way down to the individual building. The first version of the Global Exposure Database contains aggregate information on population and the number/built area/reconstruction cost of residential and non-residential buildings at a 1km resolution. Detailed datasets on single buildings are available for a selected number of areas and will increase over time.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

EXPO-CAT

Provided by: USGS

EXPO-CAT provides first-order estimates of the number of people exposed to significant global earthquakes since 1973 using current USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) methodology. It combines earthquakes in the Atlas of ShakeMaps with a gridded global population database to estimate population exposure at specific levels of ground shaking. Present-day exposure is estimated using the Oak Ridge Laboratory's Landscan 2006 global population database.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Urban Exposure

Provided by: UNEP/UNISDR

UNISDR's Global Risk Data Platform includes a database on the exposed capital-monetary value of urban buildings. The socio-economic part of the database incorporates four sectors: income, employment, health and education. The assets value represents the value of the infrastructure, machinery, and, building contained in an urban area within a country. Once disaggregated at cell level, the assets value is then redistributed in a proportional way across the different elements (socioeconomic and building type) and transposed onto a global reference grid of approximately 5x5 km.

scope Global

access Open

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Data

Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI)

Provided by: SOPAC/SPC, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank.

"The PCRAFI assessment included an extensive collection of exposure data. The exposure database for the 15 Pacific Islands Countries and Territories includes information on the distribution of the population and characterization of the assets that are exposed to natural hazards. Many sources were used to compile this database, containing population, buildings, infrastructure, crops, and replacement costs. A population database, based on a Geographical Information System (GIS) was created in order to geographically identify the population and assets at risk in each country. The exposure database includes a comprehensive inventory of residential, commercial, public and industrial buildings. The infrastructure database comprises a detailed and extensive inventory of major assets, such as airports, ports, power plants, dams, major roads, and bridges."

scope Regional

access Open

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EDITED 12 NOV 2015 BY: PREVENTIONWEB EDITOR