Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2013
From Shared Risk to Shared Value: the Business Case for Disaster Risk Reduction

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(Source: UNISDR, 2012

UNISDR. 2012.,City Resilience in Africa: A Ten Essentials Pilot., United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction., Geneva,Switzerland: UNISDR.. .
Box 4.1 Extensive risks in urban centres in Kenya and Tanzania
A recent survey of disaster risk reduction in the towns of Kisumu in Kenya and Moshi in Tanzania depicts similar pictures. Administrative capacities in Kisumu and Moshi are challenged as local governments try to maintain basic infrastructure—such as storm drains—the disrepair of which leads to frequent flooding. The lack of waste management systems means that drains are frequently blocked with garbage and sewage, increasing flood risk and compromising water quality. The impact on low-income households, who frequently live in the most floodprone areas, is devastating. Land-use planning is ineffective and disaster reduction planning non-existent. Local governments have no budget to dedicate to reduce risks and have little influence over environmental degradation in surrounding areas that increase risks in these towns.
higher rates of mortality. Almost by definition, informal settlements (and a significant proportion of social housing) occupy areas of low land value, such as low-lying flood-prone areas or on landslide-prone hillsides.
In the case of Cape Verde and Senegal, for example, in their capitals Praia and Dakar, flooding has intensified over the years (DARA, 2013

DARA. 2013.,Brief on Dara's Risk Reduction Index West Africa Phase., DARA International., Madrid,Spain.. Available at
). New studies at the local level in West Africa highlight that underlying drivers of flood risks are poor drainage systems related to land-use and newly built environments, and limited access to land. The studies point to West Africa’s continuous problems in expanding urban centres and the need for urban planning and sufficient public or private investments in adequate infrastructure. Local data of these studies were backed by national data that indicated similar problems in urban areas in Cape Verde, Ghana and Senegal (Ibid.).
In addition, the health of millions is threatened (Mitlin and Satterthwaite, 2012

Mitlin, D. and Satterthwaite D. 2012.,Urban Poverty in the Global South: Scale and Nature., London,Routledge. .
). For example, in Maputo, Mozambique, the limited coverage of the city’s sewage system is a serious cholera threat even in normal times, which becomes a major challenge for authorities during annual flooding (Thompson, 2004

Thompson, G. 2004.,Sanitation Partnerships in Maputo, Mozambique. A case study., Draft report available via Short version: BPD Water and Sanitation, “Sanitation Partnerships: Maputo Case Study”.. .
As Box 4.1 shows, investments in protective infrastructure, such as drainage and slope stabilisation, are often inadequate. Low-income households are also more likely to live in makeshift or poor quality
constructions, further increasing their vulnerability. Disaster risks in rural areas may be particularly invisible, given the low density of produced capital and declining population. As Box 4.2 highlights, in the case of Colombia, rural populations i with unsatisfied basic needs experienced the largest relative losses during the 2010–2011 La Nia episode.
Indirect losses and the wider effects of disaster loss for low-income households and communities are rarely accounted for. However, GAR09 (UNISDR, 2009

UNISDR. 2009.,Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Risk and poverty in a changing climate., United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction., Geneva,Switzerland: UNISDR.. .
) highlighted, through a set of microeconomic studies, negative welfare outcomes, including declines in school attendance, nutrition, health, productivity and increases in inequality and unemployment. Some of these outcomes can be transmitted across generations (GAR 13 paperOle MoiYoi, 2012

GAR13 Reference Ole MoiYoi, O. 2012.,Short- and Long-term Effects of Drought on Human Health..
Click here to view this GAR paper.
). GAR11 (UNISDR, 2011

UNISDR. 2011.,Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Revealing Risk, Redefining Development., United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction., Geneva,Switzerland: UNISDR.. .
) also showed how extensive disasters negatively affect children and their future.
The social costs of extensive risk are not accounted for by either governments or business and are largely absorbed by low-income households and communities, undermining their potential for development and eroding resilience.
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