Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2013
From Shared Risk to Shared Value: the Business Case for Disaster Risk Reduction

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150 Part II - Chapter 9
i Data on real growth in the sector were not available for 2012 at the time of writing.

ii To be categorised as a Least Developed Country by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, a country must satisfy three criteria: low gross national income (under US$750 based on a three-year average estimate); low human resources (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education); and high economic vulnerability (based on a composite Economic Vulnerability Index). For more information, see:

iii Vulnerability here is defined based on United Nations Environment Programme/SOPAC methodology (UNDESA, 2010

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs). 2010.,Trends in Sustainable Development. Small Islands Developing States (SIDS)., United Nations publication., New York,USA.. .
) and takes into account characteristics such as size, remoteness, dependence on external demand and supply, extent of resource base, and exposure to global environmental challenges.


v All these measures are described by countries in their National HFA progress reviews, 2011–2013 available on

sures have included developing new cyclone building standards (Cook Islands); coastal land-use and zoning plans that are considerate of projected tsunami and storm surge levels (Fiji); and setting back new infrastructure developments according to storm surge inundation lines for events with a 100 years return period (Anguilla).v 
Although resort tourism features predominantly in beach tourism in several SIDS, such as Fiji (Scheyvens and Russell, 2012

Scheyvens, R. and Russell, M. 2012.,Tourism and poverty alleviation in Fiji: Comparing the impacts of small and large-scale tourism enterprises., Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol 20, Nr. 3: 417-436.. .
), eco-tourism is now the fastest-growing segment within the global tourism industry. Investments in resilient communities, environmental protection and local culture are already on the agenda of large hotel chains, airlines and tour operators (UNWTO, 2011

UNWTO (World Tourism Organization). 2011.,Compendium of Tourism Statistics Data 2006-2010., 2011 Edition.. .
Certification programmes and voluntary rating systems are emerging as popular tools. They are increasingly being accepted by clients and supported by governments that seek to promote the role of private enterprises in disaster risk management (Raisch, 2007

Raisch, W.G. 2007.,A Missing Link Between Business Resilience & Incentives? A New U.S. Law and Corporate Preparedness.. Available at
; Raisch et al., 2007

Raisch, W., Statler, M. and Burgi, P. 2007.,Mobilizing Corporate Resources to Disasters: Toward a Program for Action., The International Center for Enterprise Preparedness, New York University., New York,USA.. .
). One such example is Green Globe, the global travel and tourism industries’ certification programme for sustainable tourism. Green Globe Members save energy and water resources, reduce operational costs, and thus positively contribute to local communities and their environment and meet the high expectations of green leisure and business 
During interviews with small tour operators in Tonga, the main potential incentive for considering disaster risk was a quality certification programme that incorporated disaster risk reduction (GAR 13 paperMahon et al., 2012

GAR13 Reference Mahon, R., Backen, S. and Rennie, H. 2012.,Evaluating the Business Case for Investment in the Risk Resilience of the Tourism sector of Small Island Developing States., Background Paper prepared for the 2013 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction., Geneva,Switzerland: UNISDR..
Click here to view this GAR paper.
By integrating risk-neutral behaviour into the agenda of tourism destinations and operators, the sustainability of both SIDS and the tourism investments that they attract could increase. Disaster risk reduction would present a triple win situation for investors in the industry, SIDS governments and communities in tourism destinations.
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