Expert to conduct a study on human mobility in the context of climate change, disasters and environmental degradation in urban communities in West Africa
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Migration, environment, climate change and risk reduction expert to conduct a study on human mobility in the context of climate change, disasters and environmental degradation in urban communities in West Africa
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION (IOM)
TERMS OF REFERENCE - May 2023
Duty Station of the Consultancy: Home-based.
Duration of Consultancy: 3 months (1 June to 31 August).
Nature of the consultancy: Migration, Environment, Climate Change and Risk Reduction Expert Category B Consultancy.
Project Context and Scope
The International Organization for Migration (IOM), via its Migration, Environment, Climate Change and Risk Reduction (MECR) Division, is carrying out a project on “Implementing Global Policies on Environmental Migration and Disaster Displacement in West Africa” together with the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD) and funded by the Government of the French Republic. The project is aligned with international policy commitments linked to human mobility in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation, such as those made in the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM), the Paris Agreement, the Task Force on Displacement (TFD) Plan of Action 2022-2024 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Executive Committee (ExCom) of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM), and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 together with its Programme of Action for the Implementation in Africa.
Under this project, IOM together with the Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law; UNSW; PDD; UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD); Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria; and University of Nairobi supported more than 200 researchers, practitioners and policy experts working across Africa and beyond to come together in a virtual workshop series to develop a Research Agenda for Advancing Law and Policy Responses to Displacement and Migration in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change in Africa.
The Research Agenda brings together the outcomes of the Virtual Workshop Series to provide 15 proposals for future research that could a) address existing knowledge gaps relating to regional law and policy responses to displacement and migration in the context of disasters and climate change in Africa; and b) provide a guide for researchers, research institutions and funding bodies wishing to support the future development and implementation of evidence-based law and policy responses to these issues. Amongst the proposals, Proposal xiv recommends “analyzing the impacts of displacement and migration in the context of disasters and climate change on urban communities.” Through this present consultancy, IOM aims at supporting the implementation of the Research Agenda. Questions identified in the Research Agenda include: 1) How do disasters and the adverse effects of climate change impact the movement of people towards, through and from urban areas? 2) What role can local/urban actors play in better preparing for and responding to human mobility in the context of disasters and climate change (e.g. through urban planning, land use planning, local disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation strategies)?
Human mobility in the context of climate change, disasters and environmental degradation is already taking place towards, within and from cities in West Africa. Internal displacement, seasonal migration, planned relocations and immobility are already seen in the context of coastal erosion, landslides, sea-level rise, floods or droughts. Across the continent, cities are particularly exposed to hazards exacerbated by climate change, such as sea level rise, floods and droughts. Many African cities will face increasing water scarcity. They face the adverse impacts of climate change, disasters and environmental degradation, compounded by socio-economic, and political factors. At the same time, cities contribute importantly to their countries’ development while also contributing to most greenhouse gas emissions, mainly through air pollution, making them key stakeholders in efforts to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change.
It is estimated that by 2050 around 56% of Africa’s population will be living in urban areas, compared to 43% in 2020. The rapid rate of urbanization leaves only a time-limited short window of opportunity to work towards risk reduction and transformational adaptation in towns and cities. Much of the rapid rate of urbanization has resulted from the growth of small towns and intermediary cities. About 70% of African cities are highly vulnerable to climate shocks, with small- and medium-sized towns and cities more at risk.
IOM is commissioning a consultant to produce research that will contribute to strengthening the understanding of human mobility patterns in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation in urban areas in West Africa, as well as the understanding of the relevant governance and frameworks to better inform local responses.
Through this consultancy, IOM aims to support the implementation of the Research Agenda. In addition to contributing to the data and evidence pillar of the IOM project “Implementing Global Policies on Environmental Migration and Disaster Displacement in West Africa,” this research will also contribute to IOM’s overall work related to urbanization. In the last three years, IOM has implemented 160 projects, in 53 countries, that have been directly associated with progress towards SDG 11: Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Furthermore, it contributes to the PDD’s Strategy and Workplan 2019-2023 and the implementation of the 2022-2024 Plan of Action of the TFD.
Scope of study
The consultant will be tasked with:
1. Primarily based on a desk review, identify significant human (im-)mobility patterns and trends in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation from, within and towards urban areas in West Africa:
- Based on qualitative research, identify incoming movements (from both rural and urban areas), intra-urban movements and urban exodus;
- Identify the impacts of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation on the movements highlighted above;
- Identify a set of specific protection needs in these contexts.
2. Following the desk review, conduct a case study analysis in two small- or medium-sized cities in West Africa that will focus on two different scenarios where climate change-induced human mobility is taking place in order to:
- Provide a mapping and an analysis of the stakeholders, legal and policy frameworks, other regulatory mechanisms and practices governing human mobility in urban settings and implemented at the local level, and their interaction with relevant frameworks at national and regional levels in West Africa, including the participation of local actors in regional and international inter-cities advocacy networks on climate, migration and/or environmental migration;
- Identify roles played by local actors in urban areas in better preparing for, responding to human mobility in the context of disasters, climate change, and environmental degradation and addressing identified protection needs;
- Identify the actual practices and resources by local actors in urban planning, land use planning, local disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation strategies to address human mobility.
The report is expected to identify good practices and gaps in the existing local, national and regional governance and provide a basis for the formulation of recommendations to improve the adaptation and resilience of urban communities, in the context of disasters, climate change, and environmental degradation. Furthermore, the report is expected to identify challenges and opportunities associated with the inclusion of migrants and displaced people in climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction policies.
Organizational Department / Unit to which the Consultant is contributing
Department of Peace and Development Coordination / Migration, Environment, Climate Change and Risk Reduction Division
Category B Consultant: Tangible and measurable outputs of the work assignment
The principal outputs are:
- A mapping of the relevant stakeholders, legal and policy frameworks, other regulatory mechanisms and practices governing/relevant to human mobility in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation in urban settings at the local, national and regional levels. Identified stakeholders, frameworks and practices should be collected in tables, and the key findings of the mapping should be presented and discussed in the final report. Key findings should include an analysis of potential complementarities and gap areas between the different policies at the local, national and regional levels.
- A report in English or French presenting and discussing key findings of the desk review, the mapping and case studies.
Under the supervision of the IOM MECR Focal point on MECR and urban contexts, and the overall supervision of the IOM MECR Project Officer and IOM MECR Expert, the consultant will perform the following actions:
- Define a conceptual framework, in line with IOM’s framing of human mobility in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation.
- Identify relevant literature for the desk review.
- Propose a methodology and two locations for the case studies.
- Draft and share with the Review Committee1 a scoping paper outlining the conceptual framework, methodology, scope and case studies.
- Draft and share with the Review Committee an outline and a first bibliography.
- Integrate input from the Review Committee on the scoping paper, outline and bibliography.
- Develop and share the first draft of the report and mapping in English or French with the IOM supervisory team.
- Throughout the process, integrate the suggestions and comments provided in a timely manner by the Review Committee.
- Share the final version of the report, including the mapping (around 20 pages excluding the bibliography) in English or French.
- Scoping paper outlining conceptual framework, methodology, scope and case studies.
- Draft outline and initial bibliography for the report in French or English.
- Draft report in French or English presenting and discussing key findings of the review of the literature in French and English languages.
- Draft mapping in French or English.
- Final report with the bibliography list and graphs, as appropriate.
- Final mapping in French or English.
The consultancy contract will start in June 2023 and end in August 2023.
- Scoping paper, draft outline and bibliography: 15 June 2023, via e-mail.
- Draft report (based on desk review): 10 July 2023, via e-mail.
- Draft report with case studies integrated and draft mapping: 14 August 2023, via e-mail.
- Final report and mapping: 31 August 2023, via e-mail.
Performance indicators for the evaluation of results
- Deliverables submitted according to timelines outlined above.
- Quality of the deliverables according to the task outlined above.
- Final version of the deliverables submitted reflects the inputs of the parties consulted.
Education, experience and/or skills required
- At least 3 years of experience on the nexus between migration, environment and climate change.
- Advanced knowledge and skills in migration, environment, climate change and urban settings research.
- Knowledge and experience in the West Africa region.
- Fluency in English (oral and written) and advanced knowledge of French are required, knowledge of further spoken language(s) in the region is an asset.
The consultancy is taken forward in partnership with CMARN, and IOM would like to strongly encourage members of the Network to apply to this consultancy. IOM also welcomes applications from researchers that are not part of CMARN. In the context of this partnership, IOM encourages all applicants to also join the Network.
As needed to complete the consultancy.
- Inclusion and respect for diversity: respects and promotes individual and cultural differences; encourages diversity and inclusion wherever possible.
- Integrity and transparency: maintains high ethical standards and acts in a manner consistent with organizational principles/rules and standards of conduct.
- Professionalism: demonstrates ability to work in a composed, competent and committed manner and exercises careful judgment in meeting day-to-day challenges.
Core competencies – behavioral indicators
- Teamwork: develops and promotes effective collaboration within and across units to achieve shared goals and optimize results.
- Delivering results: produces and delivers quality results in a service-oriented and timely manner; is action-oriented and committed to achieving agreed outcomes.
- Managing and sharing knowledge: continuously seeks to learn, share knowledge and innovate.
- Accountability: takes ownership for achieving the Organization’s priorities and assumes responsibility for own action and delegated work.
- Communication: encourages and contributes to clear and open communication; explains complex matters in an informative, inspiring and motivational way.
Interested candidates should apply by 30 May 2023 and send the following to email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com via e-mail with the title “Urban Context Study Application by [X]”:
- A brief proposal, including the description of the approach and candidate’s experience (CV and cover letter);
- Samples of similar work; and
- A budget in EUR, including a breakdown of costs for the 2 deliverables (final report and final mapping) and any foreseen travel needed for research.