This program aims to ENGAGE, EDUCATE and PREPARE individuals and families for future disasters in the ultimate aim of minimizing loss of life and injury in disaster time through a 90-minute training session.
Trainers will cover the fundamentals in how to survive and help others during the first 72 hours of a disaster. The participants will be introduced to essential topics and will complete a workbook during the workshop in which they create an effective disaster plan for their entire family.
With guidance from the workshop trainer, participants will FORMULATE A DISASTER PLAN FOR THEIR WHOLE FAMILY which is specific to their community/neighbourhood. Participants will then be strongly encouraged to share the plan with all family/household members, so that all individuals can have the same plan that can be enacted in times of disaster.
The seminar focuses on the first 72 hours after a major disaster because this is the time frame which is most crucial for survival; this is when external help may not be at hand and survivors must be self-sufficient. "The first 72 hours after a disaster are critical. Electricity, gas, water and telephones may not be working. In addition, public safety services such as police and fire departments may not be able to reach you immediately during a serious crisis. Each person should be prepared to be self-sufficient - able to live without running water, electricity and/or gas, and telephones - for at least three days following a disaster".
Topics include: when and how to evacuate a building, how much food/water is needed per person, how to check local/regional disaster plans, how to safely evacuate, etc.. This will be broken down by time, to make it easier for people to visualize and imagine.
PBV is a unique organization in that it has extensive experience in Disaster Risk Reduction activities in both Japan and abroad (E.g., Typhoon Haiyan, Philippines 2013), dealing with small-scale (E.g., Oshima Island, 2013) and major disasters (E.g., Great East Japan Earthquake, 2011) alike. This breadth of experience and knowledge, as well as expertise gained through our active participation in disaster-related networks and forums internationally (E.g., Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva & Global Network for Disaster Reduction, The Hague), can be used to develop an effective curriculum tailored to the specified target groups.
Given the high frequency and severity of earthquakes in Japan (see Appendix), the workshop will focus on disaster preparedness primarily for earthquakes. However, the workshops will also include other hazards specific to the areas where they are held (i.e. in a tsunami area, tsunami risks will also be discussed).
Tohoku-based Curriculum: Along with input from university professors and other specialists, PBV will develop a curriculum using the experiences from Ishinomaki survivors (What the survivors did when escaping from the tsunami; what went wrong, what worked well, providing real-life examples) as a base. We will also be able to use PBV’s previous data from Ishinomaki, such as data gained through our initial emergency relief operations in 2011 and our Kizuna Newsletter psychosocial support program (in partnership with AmeriCares) of temporary housing communities which continues to this day.
This will help to pass on the experiences and lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake to a wider audience. PBV is conducting a survey this year (in partnership with other governmental and community organizations) in order to gather the stories and first-hand accounts of survivors in Ishinomaki. These accounts and relevant data will provide the foundation on which to build the curriculum.
The main target groups for this training course are the following:
-General public (especially those with families/children)
-Local, grass-roots organizations (NGOs/NPOs)
-Specialist organizations (Social Welfare Councils, Disaster Volunteer Centers)
-Community groups (Parent Teacher Associations, Junior Chambers of Commerce)
-Survivors of disasters/disaster-affected communities (Residents of temporary housing areas in Tohoku)
-Schools and Universities
-Businesses with close community ties
Through PBV’s existing network and relationships with groups like the Social Welfare Council and Temporary Housing Association in Ishinomaki, the workshop will be able to reach a wide audience. PBV’s proven track record with the Disaster Relief Volunteer Training Programme, through which we have trained over 1000 disaster volunteers (see Section G(2)), also lends us credibility and will enable us to build off our current networks to implement these trainings.
PBV will organize workshops in temporary housing areas, housing survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. PBV has ongoing projects in these temporary housing communities (such as the Kizuna newsletter project in partnership with AmeriCares) and so the trust and relationships are already in place to enable us to deliver these trainings. This should also contribute a relatively large number of participants, given that there are still approximately 7,000 temporary houses across 134 sites in Ishinomaki alone housing over 14,000 residents.
A secondary target group would be a small number of businesses with close connections to their local communities; local businesses and employees often act as leaders in their communities after major disasters. If employees of these busineses can be trained to look after themselves and care for others in the immediate aftermath of a disaster, this will be a valuable asset as they can care for their customers/clients and other community members when needed. These kinds of businesses have the existing networks and close relationships with community members, which could be leveraged in disaster time to assist affected communities.
Training of Trainers
PBV will train community leaders, employees in specialist organizations and local groups to conduct the training themselves within their own communities and circles. PBV will also train a number of graduates from our Disaster Relief Volunteer Training Programme (currently over 1000 individuals), who have first-hand experience and core knowledge on disaster-related issues to train their peers.
This provides the following benefits:
-The trainings can be delivered to a larger number of people (wider reach)
-These trainings in themselves are a way to form community ties/bonds which can strengthen communities in disaster times
-Increase awareness of Disaster Risk Reduction and encourages further education
On the successful formation of partnerships the programme can be extended and scaled-up into other countries and regions
Deliver workshops to 660 participants during the course of the project period (each participant being a representative of a household).
660 households will have an effective disaster plan for their household through taking part in the workshop.
660 participants multiplied by 3 household members (the average family size in Japan is 2.7) will result in 1980 direct beneficiaries who are better prepared for disasters and who have an effective disaster plan.
Indirect benficiaries will be community members who have had disaster plans shared with them by the trainees of the program; trainees would make their own disaster preparedness plans through this workshop and would share with family/friends in their communities who would in turn be more encouraged to make their own disaster plans and would have a greater level of awareness related to disaster preparedness. Approximately 1 in 4 trainees will share this critical information with local community members, resulting in 165 households (495 individuals) who would be classed as indirect beneficiaries.
PBV has conducted research & analysis into existing disaster education programs, investigating such areas as participation rates, reach, course structures, types/number of organisations conducting these kinds of education programs, potential target groups, etc.. By defining disadvantages of existing programs and determining gaps that need to be filled, we have pinpointed opportunities for this project to maximize effectiveness (as discussed in section C(11)).
Plan & Design: This project has been planned and designed with input from specialists, such as university professors and disaster prevention specialists, in order to determine the best method of achieving project objectives. The curriculum has also been built with an emphasis on the Tohoku region post-Great East Japan Earthquake in an attempt to ensure that the lessons from the disaster are incorporated into the core of the project.
Monitoring and Evaluation:
Pre-Test: A pre-test will be conducted in April 2014, both within PBV and with another external group. Participants of the pre-test will take part in the workshop itself (90 minutes) and will take surveys both before and after the workshop in order to measure the change in learning.
Once Implementation Begins: All participants will fill in a primary and secondary surveys after completion of the workshop.
The primary survey will be completed immediately after completion of the program (i.e. in the classroom/venue) to gather information on:
a) how the participant found the course content/method of training, etc.
b) what kind of content was useful/could be adjusted
c) what other topics could be included in the course
d) how they plan to use the knowledge/information gained through the course in the future (E.g., sharing/creating disaster plans for their families/friends)
e) What kind of actions they will take in the future (E.g., Taking part in community disaster exercises/groups)
Parts a), b) and c) will be used to ensure feedback loops and to improve the course based on participants' opinions and experiences.
Parts d) and e) will illustrate what kind of actions the participants are planning/willing to take after taking the course.
The secondary survey will be sent out to participants with a time lag (E.g., 3 months) in order to monitor:
a) what kind of actions they have taken since completion of the course (E.g., made an emergency kit at home, examined local hazard maps)
b) what kind of steps they have taken to ensure their own and their families' disaster preparedness (E.g., Shared disaster plan with family members)
c) how their attitudes towards/awareness of Disaster Risk Reduction have changed (E.g., Want to learn more about disaster prevention measures)
d) what kind of disaster-related activities they plan going forward (E.g., Pursue further disaster education, train their own communities)
This will enable evaluation of what kind of concrete actions have taken place after taking the course and illustrate how the course has led to a change in the benficiaries' behaviors, attitudes and actions.
PBV will maintain accurate and detailed records of participants and the trainers (trainers trained by PBV to teach their own communities) in order to guage how many people have taken part overall. One of the benefits of the "Training of Trainers" concept (Section C (11)) is that the course can have a wider reach, but to ensure to maintain accurate data, all information will be gathered/collated/analyzed by PBV.
Assessments will be conducted on a regular basis through:
a) Collating/analyzing data from surveys
b) Qualitative data through interviews
c) Formal reporting (E.g., Interim Reports)
March 2015 to Feb 2016 with expected extensions
Mr Takashi YAMAOTO
President, Peace Boat Disaster Relief Volunter Center