Fostering Coherence: Sendai, 2030 Agenda and other Key Global Frameworks
In advance of the UN World Conference on DRR in Sendai in 2015, IOM worked closely with the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), agency partners, and its Member States to support the integration of mobility and displacement in global efforts to reduce disaster risk. Agreed in March, 2015, the resulting Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) outlines global commitments to reduce risk and promote resilience. Now part of the development architecture around the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2030 Agenda), the Sendai Framework is the first global agreement on disaster risk reduction to incorporate clear references to mobility and displacement. It not only recognizes the centrality of displacement in the disaster risk reduction context, but also clearly acknowledges the role of migrants in supporting recovery, in strengthening prevention and preparedness and in promoting resilience to future disaster risk.
Beyond the Sendai Framework, the need to build resilience to disaster and thereby reduce displacement is a central theme in a number of other international processes and agreements. The 2030 Agenda, adopted later in 2015, recognizes and reaffirms the urgent need to reduce the risk of disasters as part of its commitment “to leave no one behind”. It makes direct references to the outcomes of the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction and the Sendai Framework and outlines 25 specific targets related to disaster risk reduction and resilience in 10 of the 17 SDGs. Similarly, the Paris Agreement adopted in 2015 by the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognizes the need to address the mobility implications of climate change, and establishes a global goal to promote adaptation, strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change.
Further, as an outcome of the World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) in 2016, the biggest donors and aid providers signed up to the Grand Bargain, which commits to “significantly increase prevention, mitigation and preparedness for early action to anticipate and secure resources for recovery”, while the New Urban Agenda, agreed in Quito in October 2016, commits to strengthening resilience in cities by implementing better urban planning, quality infrastructure and improving local responses.
The Sendai Framework calls on the UN system to support the implementation of the priorities of the Sendai Framework coherently with the 2030 Agenda and other relevant international agreements. This led to the creation of the UN Plan of Action on Disaster Reduction for Resilience (UN Plan of Action), which provides the UN system with a common framework to strengthen system-wide coherence; build UN system capacity to deliver coordinated, high-quality support to countries on disaster risk reduction; and, ensure that disaster risk reduction remains a priority for UN organizations.
IOM is committed to assisting Member States to implement the priorities of the Sendai Framework in line with the Plan of Action. The Organization’s portfolio of work focusing on DRR and resilience contributes to all the priorities of the Sendai Framework aiming to substantially reduce disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods, health and in assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries. In addition, with IOM’s entry into the UN system as a Related Agency in 2016, a unique opportunity now presents itself for IOM to scale up its engagements and operational partnerships in support of Member States, and to promote greater attention to mobility dimensions of disaster risk within inter-agency planning frameworks and mechanisms, such as the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF),
Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative (CADRI).
IOM Best Practices from National and Local Action
Disaster Risk Management for Resilience, Afghanistan, 2015-2018
Approximately 60 percent of Afghanistan’s population is exposed to natural hazards, impacting an average of 235,000 people each year, and adding to already widespread conflict-induced displacement. The severity of these disasters are exacerbated by decades of conflict, combined with drought and environmental mismanagement, impacting on rural mobility dynamics and affecting the sustainability of local livelihoods. Against this backdrop, IOM is implementing an initiative that seeks to reduce the mobility impacts of disaster events by strengthening the national Disaster Management Information System (DMIS) combined with resilience-building initiatives at the local level that include risk education, early warning systems, risk-mitigation infrastructure and cash-for-work.
Climate Risk Education for Small Island Developing States (‘SIDS’), 2012-2016
The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) are at the frontline of climate change impacts and extreme weather events. With limited options for mobility and relocation, an intrinsic feature of small island states, impacts of typhoons, storm surge, droughts, flooding and landslides are frequently felt. IOM’s Climate Adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction and Education (CADRE) programme integrates climate risk education within school curricula and raises awareness in local communities regarding climate risks and possible adaptation practices. The project has contributed to increasing the capacity of communities and households to anticipate, and adapt to, slow-onset climate-change effects or extreme weather events.
Early Warning & Early Action, Indonesia, 2015
Indonesia is frequently impacted by earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, volcanic eruptions, flooding and drought. Working closely with the national and local governments, IOM supported the development of regional-level emergency operations centres equipped with state-of-the-art information and communication technology and radio communication systems linked with technical training support. These EOCs now support quick, provincial-wide flow of disaster information between critical response actors in order to monitor hazards, reduce risk through mobility responses and to track and respond to forced mobility of disaster, as it occurs. The project was successful in upgrading the capacity of the Government to undertake effective disaster risk management, in particular through improved early warning capacity and better response preparedness for adverse events.
Preparing and Preserving Open Spaces for Response, Nepal, 2015-2018
Nepal is a hotspot for geophysical and climatic activity and ranked high in terms of vulnerability to natural calamities. Disaster risks are compounded by rapid growth in population and urbanization. To strengthen the resilience of local communities, IOM, in support of the Government’s National Disaster Response Framework (NDRF), has been supporting an initiative to identify, protect and preserve open spaces designated for humanitarian purposes and that can be used to provide safety and assistance for displaced people affected by disaster. The project is mobilizing women’s groups, youth clubs, local authorities and businesses to maintain the spaces. On April 25, 2015, a severe earthquake struck near the city of Kathmandu in central Nepal killing 9,000 people and damaging or destroying more than 600,000 structures. The spaces, identified to meet the communities’ projected needs, were used to great effect in the aftermath of the country’s 2015 earthquake.
Building Back Better, Pakistan, 2010
In July 2010, flash-flooding in Pakistan wreaked havoc in 15 thousand villages, affecting some 18 million people. IOM responded through the ‘One Room Shelter Project’ to provide 30,000 flood resistant durable shelters. A key feature of the project was to empower people to lead their own reconstruction process through a system of conditional cash payments. The project made use of locally salvageable materials, local labour and locally purchased material inputs. Key to the ‘build back better’ approach was support to training in flood-resilient building methods stressing adoption of local designs. IOM also supported a national communications initiative that raised awareness of assistance entitlements, disseminated key risk information and promoted a humanitarian hotline. The communications project led by IOM was subsequently incorporated into the Governments national disaster risk management strategy in recognition of its important contribution to the strengthening resilience in recovery and reconstruction.