Expert of the Week   for  14 - 20 Jul 2014

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Djillali Benouar

Professor of Earthquake Engineering and Disaster Risk Reduction

University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene (USTHB) Expertise:  Earthquake Engineering and Disaster Risk Reduction

Djillali BENOUAR has completed his PhD from Imperial College (University of London, UK) and his M.Sc. from Stanford University (CA, USA) and postdoctoral studies from University of Tokyo (Japan). He is a professor of Earthquake Engineering and Disaster Risk Reduction at the Faculty of Civil Engineering at the University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene (USTHB) in Algeria and is the Director of the Built Environment Research laboratory (LBE) at USTHB. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member for several others. He is a member of the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk (IRDR) Science Committee, member of the Algerian Hazards Network (AHNet) and a partner of the Periperi U (Partners Enhancing Resilience to People Exposed to Risks) an African Consortium and an ICoE of the IRDR programme.

Forensic Investigations of Disasters

Read more on the context

QQuestion by Ms Nusrat Nasab

Dear Professor Benouar

What is the best early warning system for a mountain community living with multiple hazards and where there is no ICT tools available? Moreover, would you please recommend an expert to carryout a seismic microzonnation study

Ms Nusrat Nasab CEO | FOCUS HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE
Pakistan

APosted on 21 Jul 2014

Thank you very much for your important question.

1.      
For
a mountain community living with multiple hazards where there are no ICT tools
available, in my best knowledge and experience, in Islamic countries, the best
early warning system is the use the mosques network to inform people as people
are used to respond to the call of the muezzin for prayers, but of course other
indigenous techniques may exist in the local culture.


2.      
For
the experts to carry out a seismic microzonation study, I would recommend:

 

Dr. Mohamed Naboulsi
FARSI
, Algerian National
Centre for Applied Research In Earthquake Engineering “CGS”

Email: Mohammed FARSI <mnfarsi@gmail.com>, Mohamed Farsi <mnfarsi@cgs-dz.org>,

 

Dr. Pierre-Yves Bard, University of Grenoble (France)

Email: "pierre-yves.bard@ujf-grenoble.fr"
<pierre-yves.bard@ujf-grenoble.fr




QQuestion by Ms ANA ROSALES

GOOD MORNING,
HOW LONG DOES THE FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF DE DISASTERS LAST FOR?

Ms ANA ROSALES LIC. ADMINISTRACIÓN DE DESASTRES | MESA DE RIESGO
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep of

APosted on 21 Jul 2014

Good morning, thank you very much for your pertinent question.

As for any investigation, the time to achieve the investigation depends on several factors as for disasters we may mention the political will to know the truth, the collection and accessibility of data, the expertise, experience and  skills of the multidisciplinary team, etc., this may last three months minimum for the collection of data, treatment, analysis and get the results.

Forensic approach is
perhaps similar to solving a picture of a disaster puzzle. Initially, there are
dozens or even hundreds of apparently disorganized pieces piled when examined
individually, each piece may not provide much information. Methodically, the
various pieces are sorted and patiently fitted together in a logical context
taking into account all the parameters. Gradually, an overall picture of the
disaster emerges.
Thanks for your interest to forensic investigation of disasters


QQuestion by Dr Gerardo Huertas

What are the mechanisms for transfer lessons learned of your work?

Infrastructure loses on animal farming after disasters causes big secondary loses, preventable, if the industry only knew about cost/benefit of resilience

Dr Gerardo Huertas Global Director Animals in Disasters Program | World Animal Protection
United Kingdom

APosted on 18 Jul 2014

Thank you very much for your question.
The forensic investigation of disasters can make
a significant contribution to the process of learning from disasters by
disseminating information to scientists, politicians, managers, decision-makers
and to civil society. They thus are focussing
on the decision-making processes and group, organizational and institutional actions
prior to the disasters to dermine the causes and deficiencies and correct them and transfer them to the stakeholders concerned. By leaning from our experiences in disasters and understanding better the causes we may reduce effectively the disaster risk.

In my opinion, infrastructures for animal farming should form its own group to have a specific code of practice to disaster risk reduction according the level of risk accepted by the group. This industry should get closer to disaster risk scientists to a better understanding each other to develop a specific disaster risk reduction strategy.



QQuestion by Mr Zakir Md Hossain

Dear Professor,
1. Do you think that unsustainable activities (e.g., mining, water cycle disruption) by Human might be a cause to EQ?
2. How far science is to predict EQ?

Mr Zakir Md Hossain Founder & Chief | Krisoker Sor (Farmers' Voice)
Bangladesh

APosted on 18 Jul 2014

Than you very much for your question,

1. Indeed, unsustainable activities (e.g. mining, oil, water cycle disruption, etc.) by human what is called INDUCED earthquakes, they are general of low magnitudes.

2. Unfortunately, until today science has not been able to predict earthqukes, although there are many attempts going on in several research laboratories across the globe.

QQuestion by Ms Gabriel Kassenga

Thank you for sharing an interesting topic. I want to know how reliable are results from forensic investigations of disasters especially earthquakes. Thank you!

Ms Gabriel Kassenga Professor | Ardhi University
United Kingdom

APosted on 16 Jul 2014

Thank you very much for your important
question.

Regarding the performance of a structure during an
earthquake, there are many questions that are still to be asked; there
is no simple answer due to the many variables and
uncertainties involved in the
conception, design, sitting, and construction of structures subject to earthquake loads. Furthermore, there are also the decision
processes and group, organizational and institutional arrangements in existence
prior to the disasters themselves which the forensic investigations is to dig
more deeply into the causes of disasters in an integrated, comprehensive,
transparent, and investigative or forensic style.

Disasters are ever more being accepted as
‘processes’ and not discreet ‘events’. Furthermore, the causes of disasters are
driven by multifaceted engineering, socio-economic, socio-cultural, and various
geophysical and hydro-meteorological
factors. Such interacting driving factors, happening across a variety of
temporal and spatial scales, combine in many ways to construct disaster risks. Actually, much of
the research and management of disasters have focussed on the geophysical
events and their magnitude, frequency, distribution and causal mechanisms (the
natural sciences) and on the problems of emergency response, relief,
rehabilitation and reconstruction (studies of disaster impacts and recovery). And
conclusion from the analysis is still informed by a concentration on surface symptoms of observations of impacts of
events rather digging into the critical causes in the whole processes of
disaster risk construction and accumulation.

It is clear that
forensic investigation does not eliminate completely the uncertainties of the
causes of the disasters, but in applying accepted scientific methodologies and principles
to interpret the disaster in all its process with a better degree of
reliability. There is a higher reliability of the results from forensic
investigations of disasters for all kinds of events as the analysis requires
the simultaneous application of several scientific disciplines simultaneously.




QQuestion by Ms Libda Belabdelouahab-Fernini

I am very fortunate to have the opportunity to ask a question. I wonder how we can prepare kids to counteract their fear in case of disasters. How can we simplify things to help them overcome the event and assimilate it as a natural phenomenon?Thanks

Ms Libda Belabdelouahab-Fernini University associate professor | University of M 'Sila
Algeria

APosted on 15 Jul 2014

Thank you very much for your pertinent question.
It is well accepted today that Disaster
Risk Reduction Begins at Schools and evidence is
growing that school children of all levels can study and participate in school
safety measures and work with teachers and other adults to reduce risk before,
during and after disasters.

The
child-friendly education approach aims to offer significant, high-quality
education including knowledge, skills and attitudes about natural hazards and on
how to reduce their risks.

Disaster risk reduction should be integrated into education curricula at
all ages to help teach children about how to identify and respond to risk in
their communities. Importantly, this knowledge is often passed on first to
their parents and thus to the wider community and hence the benefits reach
beyond the children themselves.

By introducing disaster risk reduction at school curricula, school children
feel more secure and confident. They also feel empowered and aware, and it is
clear that the activities will contribute to a reduced psychosocial impact – to
the extent that they can – in the event of an emergency.



There area variety
of simple participatory approaches to prepare school children by using strategies involving
child-to-child peer education, the use of songs, electronic and print media,
action learning, and using science education as a means to introduce studies of
disaster risk.


For instance in Algeria, the school children
represent more than a quarter of the whole population in Algeria. They
are the most vulnerable group of the civil society;  they have a large capacity of learning and
transferring their knowledge to their environment, for these main reasons, disaster rsik reduction should integrated in the official curricula at all levels.
That is why, disaster risk reduction should be integrated in school
curricula to train the next generation for a better reduction of
disaster risks.

Recomended
readings:

 http://www.eldis.org/go/topics/resource-guides/climate-change/key-issues/children/-climate-change-an...


QQuestion by Ms Libda Belabdelouahab-Fernini

I am very fortunate to have the opportunity to ask a question. I wonder how we can prepare kids to counteract their fear in case of disasters. How can we simplify things to help them overcome the event and assimilate it as a natural phenomenon?Thanks

Ms Libda Belabdelouahab-Fernini University associate professor | University of M 'Sila
Algeria

APosted on 15 Jul 2014

Thank you very much for your pertinent question.
It is well accepted today that Disaster
Risk Reduction Begins at Schools and evidence is
growing that school children of all levels can study and participate in school
safety measures and work with teachers and other adults to reduce risk before,
during and after disasters.

The
child-friendly education approach aims to offer significant, high-quality
education including knowledge, skills and attitudes about natural hazards and on
how to reduce their risks.

Disaster risk reduction should be integrated into education curricula at
all ages to help teach children about how to identify and respond to risk in
their communities. Importantly, this knowledge is often passed on first to
their parents and thus to the wider community and hence the benefits reach
beyond the children themselves.

By introducing disaster risk reduction at school curricula, school children
feel more secure and confident. They also feel empowered and aware, and it is
clear that the activities will contribute to a reduced psychosocial impact – to
the extent that they can – in the event of an emergency.



There area variety
of simple participatory approaches to prepare school children by using strategies involving
child-to-child peer education, the use of songs, electronic and print media,
action learning, and using science education as a means to introduce studies of
disaster risk.


For instance in Algeria, the school children
represent more than a quarter of the whole population in Algeria. They
are the most vulnerable group of the civil society;  they have a large capacity of learning and
transferring their knowledge to their environment, for these main reasons, disaster rsik reduction should integrated in the official curricula at all levels. That is why, disaster risk reduction should be integrated in school curricula to train the next generation for a better reduction of disaster risks.

Recomended
readings:

 http://www.eldis.org/go/topics/resource-guides/climate-change/key-issues/children/-climate-change-an...









QQuestion by Mr Melizi Tahar

Vous qui avez visité la plupart des pays du monde,quel est le pays où cette médecine est la plus developée et quelle est l'importance à lui consacrer dans un système national à mettre en place?
Merci.

Mr Melizi Tahar Responsable d'institution nationale | D N R M
Algeria

APosted on 14 Jul 2014

Merci beaucoup pour cette question perninente et votre intérêt à cette méthode.
J'aimerais vous informer que cette méthode "Forensic Investigations of Disasters" n'est appliquée complètement dans aucun pays actuellement, mais c'est une méthode qui est acceptée de plus en plus pour déterminer les causes multiples dans toutes les phases du processus menant à la catastrophes. Ces causes peuvent être humaines, technologiques, code de pratique, règlementaires ou législatives, organisationnelles, institutionnelles, etc. Cette méthode nous permettra d'apprendre les vraies leçons d'une catastrophe et par conséquent prendre les mesures adéquates pour réduire le risque de catastrophe.

Il est clair que l'importance d'application de cette méthode dépend de la sensibilisation et le niveau de risque accepté par les décideurs quant à ma réduction des risques de catastrophes. A mon avis, tout système national de la RRC doit, avoir après chaque catastrophe, accomplir un Forensic Investigations of Disasters qui permettra de faire ressortir toutes les faiblesses et défaillances de toute chaîne de la gestion des risques de catastrophes.
Salutations

QQuestion by Mr zabiullah sayed

dear sir
i want to know more about Forensic Investigations of Disasters.kindly send me more information a bout it

Mr zabiullah sayed export of DRR | ANDMA

APosted on 14 Jul 2014

¨Please find the link of the IRDR FORIN Project about FORENSIC INVESTIGATIONS OF DISASTERS http://www.irdrinternational.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/FORIN-REPORT_web.pdf


QQuestion by Dr Chris Hartnady

The state of Oklahoma currently experiences an accelerating episode of induced seismicity, due to wastewater-injection operations by the oil & gas industry. Are forensic investigations conceivable in such circumstances, to avoid potential disaster?

Dr Chris Hartnady Research & Technical Director | Umvoto Africa (Pty) Ltd
Somalia

APosted on 14 Jul 2014

The main objective of Forensic Investigation of Disasters is to analyse to whole process that lead to the disaster and search for the causes  to learn better of the process and eventually the deficiencies and then propose disaster risk measures.

The forensic investigation of disaster requires the
simultaneous application of several scientific disciplines simultaneously in order to determine the causes (human, technology, code of practice, institution, organizations, etc.) with a certain degree of reliability.


THIS SESSION CONCLUDED ON

20
July
2014