ORGANIZER(S): World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
Type: Meeting or Conference Date: 05 - 07 Nov 2014 Location: Switzerland (Geneva)
The Gender and Climate Forum of the World Climate Conference-3 (WCC-3) concluded that the effects of weather and climate are not gender-neutral. Women and men are frequently affected differently by weather and climate impacts, and therefore could benefit from more contextualized we ather and climate services for resilience building. They shou ld also enjoy equal access to available weather and climate information. The Forum recommended that the Global Framework for ClimateServices (GFCS) reflect a gender perspective in all its components and that the collection of gender disaggregated data be enhanced.
At a time when WMO and its partners in the GFCS are forging ways to provide such user-driven, custom-tailored weather and climate information, it is essential to hear the voice of men and women, both as users and providers of climate services, with regard to their needs, gender-specific issues, and possible approaches of addressing them.
As part of the implementation of the WMO Policy on Gender Mainstreaming, this Conference will advance analysis of the gender dimension of weather and climate services. It will also amplify the decision taken at UNFCCC COP 18 to advance gender equality and improve the active participation of women in climate action. It will further be in line with the consideration of gender equality, women’s rights and women’s empowerment in the context of the post-2015 sustainable development agenda as well as contribute to the preparations for the 20th anniversary of the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (Beijing+20) in 2015.
Given the four GFCS initial priority areas, we want to generate discussion on the gender nuances of climate variability and climate change adaptation a s well as explore the ground for development of weather and climate services, taking equally into account the needs of women and men in the areas of health, food, water, and disaster risk reduction. A s the examples below illustrate, there are specific ways in which women and men are affected by climate change in these sectors:
Women provide up to 80 per cent of agricultural labour and produce 45 to 90 per cent of domestically consumed food, depending on the region. In the context of climate change, traditional food sources become more vulnerable, and women face potential loss of income as well as harvests. Related increases in food prices make food more inaccessible to poor people, in particular to women and children whose health has been found to decline more than male health in times of food shortages. Overall, women’s scarcer economic resources, lower adult literacy, and smaller involvement in decision-making lessen their capacity to respond in situations of environmental risk to food security.
At the same time, they play an important role in terms of family subsistence and managing the risk to global food supply in the face of an unprecedented world population growth.
Disaster risk reduction
Every year 100 million women and girls are affected by disasters. Female-headed households are often among the poorest and most vulnerable to disaster and climate change, as they may have little choice other than to live in precarious locations such as flood-prone lands or on steep slopes. Studies have shown that disaster mortality rates are higher for women than for men, and that this is caused by differences in vulnerability as a result of socially constructed gender roles, and inequalities between them in access to resources and decision-making power. Meanwhile, as mothers, community leaders, teachers, activists, social workers and role models, women are invaluable in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation processes.
Gathering and transporting water in a number of developing countries, least developed and Small Island Developing States typically falls on women and girls, who spend up to six hours every day fetching water. A task that is taking increasingly longer as a result of climate change, especially in drought prone areas. This results in less time available for education or other socio- economic activities for women and girls decreases. The longer travelling distance further heightens the risk of being exposed to violence. Women also play an important role as educators at the family and community level on the efficient use of water resources.
There are gender related differences in many of the health risks that are likely to be influenced by on-going climate variability and change. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), natural disasters such as droughts, floods and storms kill more women than men. Some diseases that women and children are especially vulnerable to, such as malaria and diarrhoea, are also expected to increase in prevalence as temperatures rise or as a result of floods and water contamination.
Air pollution and climate change are also tightly linked, with close to two million premature deaths caused annually, mostly of women and children in developing countries, due to the inefficient use of organic materials for cooking. There are also differences in other climate-sensitive health impacts, such as malnutrition.
Providers and users of weather, climate and related environmental services
Short URL: https://www.preventionweb.net/go/36560