2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami

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The morning of December 26, 2004 saw the worst disaster in Indonesia’s history. A magnitude (M) 9.1 submarine earthquake occurred along the Indian Ocean subduction zone triggering a massive tsunami that destroyed 800 km of the coastal areas of Aceh Province with inundation observed as far as 6 km inland. Post disaster damage and loss assessment revealed staggering numbers on the calamity that include over 220,000 human fatalities and the destruction of 139,000 houses, 73,869 hectares of agricultural lands, 2,618 kilometers of roads, 3,415 schools, 104,500 small-medium enterprises, 13,828 fishing boats, 119 bridges, 669 government buildings, 517 health facilities, 1,089 worship places, 22 seaports, and 8 airports and airstrips (BRR-Agency for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias, 2009). Added to these statistics, more than half a million tsunami survivors were internally displaced and hundreds of thousands more lost their livelihoods.

Almost within hours, news on the tsunami devastation of Aceh spread quickly around the world eventually sparking an unprecedented massive global community emergency response and relief effort. Given the extremely urgent situation on the grounds, the Government of Indonesia agreed to allow international military personnel coming from Asian and European countries, the United States, and Australia, among others, to participate in the disaster response operations that also included more than 600 local, national, and international non-governmental, community-based, civil society, multi-lateral, and UN organizations. Some of these organizations continued to be involved in the post-tsunami reconstruction and recovery phase. The reconstruction costs were estimated to be US $4.9 billion while committed funds from various sources including the international community donors and the Government of Indonesia amounted to US$ 6.7 billion (BRR, 2009).

Before embarking on a painstaking reconstruction effort, the Government of Indonesia created a “Master Plan for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias, North Sumatra”. Parallel to this effort, the government also established the Agency for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias (BRR), an ad-hoc agency, first of its kind, mandated to implement and coordinate government-funded projects and coordinate donor- and NGO- funded projects from April 2005 to April 2009. The “Build Back Better” philosophy was adopted in the reconstruction effort. This guiding principle seeks to ensure that every reconstruction effort shall integrate the concept of Disaster Risk Reduction that would help reduce future disaster risk and build resilience. By the end of the project period, BRR had implemented and coordinated a total of roughly 12,000 projects.

Post-tsunami recovery and reconstruction efforts generally resulted in significant achievements in terms of housing, infrastructure, environment, agriculture, livelihood, health, local economy, education, and disaster management sectors. The enactment of Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 24/ 2007 concerning Disaster Management and the subsequent transformation of disaster management entities marked a major shift in disaster management paradigm in Indonesia which should help prepare Indonesia in responding more effectively to future disaster events.

2005

The year 2004 ended in a tragedy of unprecedented scale and dimension. Many lessons can be drawn from the disaster that affected nine countries on two continents and claimed over 300,000 lives. One important lesson that emerged from the disaster is the

Asian Disaster Preparedness Center
2007

This Coastal Community Resilience (CCR) Guide was developed, on the basis of lessons learned and experience gained in the Indian Ocean region after the 2004 tsunami, to address coastal hazards and reduce risk to vulnerable communities. The framework

United States Agency for International Development
2007
This report assesses environmental conditions in Indonesia’s Aceh and North Sumatra provinces, two years after the tsunami that occurred in the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004. The report arrives at a pivotal moment, as the reconstruction process is being re-evaluated from a number of critical perspectives.
United Nations Environment Programme
2005

The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 affected part of Somalia, with most of the damage experienced in the north-east along a 650 km coastline stretching from Xafuun in the Bari region. UNEP was requested by the Somalia Transitional Federal Government to

United Nations Environment Programme
2005
This is ILO proposals for reconstruction, rehabilitation and recovery of the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami-affected countries in Asia.
International Labour Organization
2006

The magnitude and extent of the human toll of the 2004 Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami caused widespread destruction and mobilized an enormous effort for humanitarian assistance. In this context, ADPC aimed at fostering disaster preparedness and

Asian Disaster Preparedness Center
2007
This handbook was made to provide simple information to home owners, designers and builders, and building monitors to teach principles of good design and good construction in a natural hazard prone area. Thoroughly studied, they will also guide on whether to repair or rebuild damaged houses. The descriptions are followed by a code of minimum standards for construction of houses in Aceh and Nias Islands.
United Nations Development Programme - Headquarters United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction - Regional Office for Asia and Pacific
2005

This book is based on interviews conducted by research teams in March and April 2005 with hundreds of tsunami survivors, government officials, human rights activists, and aid workers in five tsunami-affected countries-India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the

East West Center East West Center
2005
This report is the product of close cooperation between UNEP and national environmental authorities and experts. It provides a preliminary ground-level look at the tsunami’s impact on various sectors of the region’s environment. It highlights problems in need of immediate attention, underscoring the strong link between environment and sustainable livelihood and the need for improved early warning and disaster preparedness systems.
United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Environment Programme
2006

This book focusses on the impacts of the tsunamis of Sunday 26 December 2004 on the natural coastal resources, especially the coral reefs and associated ecosystems, and the responses by the international community.

The book also presents a long history

Australian Institute of Marine Science