2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami

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The morning of December 26, 2004 saw the worst disaster in Indonesia’s history. A magnitude (M) 9.1 submarine earthquake occurred along the Indian Ocean subduction zone triggering a massive tsunami that destroyed 800 km of the coastal areas of Aceh Province with inundation observed as far as 6 km inland. Post disaster damage and loss assessment revealed staggering numbers on the calamity that include over 220,000 human fatalities and the destruction of 139,000 houses, 73,869 hectares of agricultural lands, 2,618 kilometers of roads, 3,415 schools, 104,500 small-medium enterprises, 13,828 fishing boats, 119 bridges, 669 government buildings, 517 health facilities, 1,089 worship places, 22 seaports, and 8 airports and airstrips (BRR-Agency for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias, 2009). Added to these statistics, more than half a million tsunami survivors were internally displaced and hundreds of thousands more lost their livelihoods.

Almost within hours, news on the tsunami devastation of Aceh spread quickly around the world eventually sparking an unprecedented massive global community emergency response and relief effort. Given the extremely urgent situation on the grounds, the Government of Indonesia agreed to allow international military personnel coming from Asian and European countries, the United States, and Australia, among others, to participate in the disaster response operations that also included more than 600 local, national, and international non-governmental, community-based, civil society, multi-lateral, and UN organizations. Some of these organizations continued to be involved in the post-tsunami reconstruction and recovery phase. The reconstruction costs were estimated to be US $4.9 billion while committed funds from various sources including the international community donors and the Government of Indonesia amounted to US$ 6.7 billion (BRR, 2009).

Before embarking on a painstaking reconstruction effort, the Government of Indonesia created a “Master Plan for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias, North Sumatra”. Parallel to this effort, the government also established the Agency for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias (BRR), an ad-hoc agency, first of its kind, mandated to implement and coordinate government-funded projects and coordinate donor- and NGO- funded projects from April 2005 to April 2009. The “Build Back Better” philosophy was adopted in the reconstruction effort. This guiding principle seeks to ensure that every reconstruction effort shall integrate the concept of Disaster Risk Reduction that would help reduce future disaster risk and build resilience. By the end of the project period, BRR had implemented and coordinated a total of roughly 12,000 projects.

Post-tsunami recovery and reconstruction efforts generally resulted in significant achievements in terms of housing, infrastructure, environment, agriculture, livelihood, health, local economy, education, and disaster management sectors. The enactment of Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 24/ 2007 concerning Disaster Management and the subsequent transformation of disaster management entities marked a major shift in disaster management paradigm in Indonesia which should help prepare Indonesia in responding more effectively to future disaster events.

2005

The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004, killed more than 280,000 people in South and Southeast Asia, including more than 10,000 in India. The roiling sea devastated large sections of coastal areas in India’s southeastern states and virtually

Human Rights Watch
2006
This report attempts to capture some of the key lessons taught by the tsunami recovery process, as experienced by the United Nations Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery, William J. Clinton.
Office of the Secretary-General's Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery
2006

The Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that struck on 26 December 2004 created an unprecedented challenge for the United Nations and the world at large. At the same time, it started a new era of increased cooperation in response in the humanitarian

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs - Headquarters
2005

This study is both an important work and counter-intuitive. When a major natural disaster of the magnitude of the December 2004 Tsunami or the October 2005 Pakistani earthquake strikes, the instinctive reaction of all concerned is to do whatever is

Plan International
2005
This report is an overview of the first 12 month-operation of Plan from relief to recovery Immediately after the tsunami in December 2004.
Plan International
2005

This report was prepared by reviewing documents from various organizations, both public and private, and agencies in Thailand published after the occurrence of the 2004 tsunami. The Ministry of Public Health organized a technical conference on tsunami

Ministry of Public Health (Thailand)
2005
More than 220,000 people dead in 12 countries and 1.6 million people displaced. Numbers alone cannot provide a true sense of the devastation wrought by the December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Nor can numbers tell us what it will take for the region to recover. In the weeks that followed the tsunami, Grameen Foundation USA took immediate action by providing $25,000 to ASA, our long-time partner in Tamil Nadu, India, to support its innovative approach to participating in the immediate relief effort. The Jameel Group committed all of the funds required to undertake a comprehensive, multi-country survey to determine how microfinance could be best used in the post-tsunami recovery effort. This report synthesizes the lessons learned from the survey teams.
Grameen Foundation
2005

This document reflects the author's personal involvement in conducting and supporting disaster assessment missions using the ECLAC methodology for the socioeconomic and environmental assessment of disasters. It first indicates (section I) the

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
2007

This report explains what is known about coastal ecosystems in the Indonesian province of Aceh, their status before the tsunami of 2004, and how they fared after it. It reviews the ecosystem restoration activities that were undertaken in 2005-2006 by a

United Nations Environment Programme
2007
This manual explains how the choice of appropriate design and construction methods and sustainable materials and technologies during the planning, implementation and maintenance phases of reconstruction can protect natural resources and reduce energy consumption and pollution. Sustainable reconstruction management provides numerous environmental, safety and financial benefits.
United Nations Environment Programme