A recent survey of disaster risk reduction in the towns of Kisumu in Kenya and Moshi in Tanzania depicts similar pictures. Administrative capacities in Kisumu and Moshi are challenged as local governments try to maintain basic infrastructure - such as storm drains - the disrepair of which leads to frequent flooding. The lack of waste management systems means that drains are frequently blocked with garbage and sewage, increasing flood risk and compromising water quality. The impact on low-income households, who frequently live in the most flood-prone areas, is devastating. Land-use planning is ineffective and disaster reduction planning non-existent. Local governments have no budget to dedicate to reduce risks and have little influence over environmental degradation in surrounding areas that increase risks in these towns.