This report explores the answer to a difficult question: what are the potential costs for coastal adaptation from 2010 until 2050 in response to human-induced climate change? It analyses sea-level rise as a climate driver, and considers the possibility of enhanced storm impacts due to higher water levels in areas subject to tropical storms and cyclones as a sensitivity analysis with the high sea-level-rise scenario. It uses the framework of the Dynamic Interactive Vulnerability Assessment (DIVA) model to explore the costs of three main protection responses to climate change: (i) sea and river dike construction and maintenance costs; (ii) beach nourishment; and (iii) port upgrade. It is intended to be reinforced by national case studies to better understand how adaptation might operate on the ground, including the relationship with wider coastal management and non-climate-change issues.
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