Tonga

Basic Country Statistics and Indicators (2014)

What's this?
- Population, GDP, GFCF, Gross savings, Total reserves (World Bank Development indicators. http://data.worldbank.org/ More information can be found in "Indicators definitions and sources".)
- Capital stock (Global Exposure Database 2014. Di Bono, 2014)
- Social expenditure (International Labour Organisation, ILO: Total Social Protection expenditure, 2012; Public Health Care expenditure, 2012; World Bank Development indicators, Public Education expenditure, 2011)
- Rule of law, Government effectiveness, Voice and accountability, Control of corruption (World Bank Governance indicators. http://data.worldbank.org/)
- Pop living in slums (Indicadores de los Objetivos del Desarrollo del Milenio http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/SeriesDetail.aspx?srid=710)
- Ecological footprint (Global Footprint Network www.footprintnetwork.org)
- Environmental performance index, Forest change (Environmental Performance Index, Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, Yale University and Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN); Columbia University http://epi.yale.edu)
Population people 105,323
Urban % Total population 23.560
Rural % Total population 76.440
Urban population growth % Annual 0.627
Population density People / km2 146.3
GDP (Gross Domestic Product) Million US$ 466.259
GDP per capita US$ 4,426.95
Capital stock Million US$ 1,303
GFCF (Gross Fixed Capital Formation) Million US$ 154.189
Social Expenditure Million US$ 56
Gross Savings Million US$ 27.643
Total reserves Million US$ 155.521

Nationally Reported Losses 1990 - 2014

All scale disasters without criteria.

Mortality

Combined economic losses

8-year moving average 2005-2013 Extensive [%] Intensive [%]
DataCards 1.38 100.00 0.00
Deaths 2.00 100.00 0.00
House destroyed 36.90 100.00 0.00
House damaged 50.25 100.00 0.00
Injured people 1.63 100.00 0.00
Displaced people 250.00 100.00 0.00
Combined economic loss (US$) 1,058,952.02 100.00 0.00

Internationally Reported Losses 1990 - 2014 EMDAT

What's this?
For a disaster to be entered into the database at least one of the following criteria must be fulfilled:
- Ten (10) or more people reported killed.
- Hundred (100) or more people reported affected.
- Declaration of a state of emergency.
- Call for international assistance.

CRED EM-DAT (Feb. 2015) : The OFDA/CRED - International Disaster Database www.emdat.be Université catholique de Louvain Brussels - Belgium.

Frequency

Mortality

Economic issues

Probabilistic risk results

Average Annual Loss (AAL) by hazard

What's this?
The Average Annual Loss (AAL) is the expected loss per annum associated to the occurrence of future perils assuming a very long observation timeframe. It considers the damage caused on the exposed elements by small, moderate and extreme events and results a useful and robust metric for risk ranking and comparisons.
Hazard
 
Absolute
[Million US$]
Capital
stock [%]
GFCF
[%]
Social
exp [%]
Total
Reserves [%]
Gross
Savings [%]
Earthquake 3.35 0.257 2.173 5.982 2.154 12.119
Wind 18.03 1.383 11.693 32.196 11.593 65.225
Storm Surge 11.11 0.852 7.205 19.839 7.144 40.191
Tsunami 0.18 0.014 0.117 0.321 0.116 0.651
Multi-Hazard 32.67 2.507 21.188 58.338 21.007 118.187

Hazard contribution to AAL

Probable Maximum Loss (PML)

What's this?
The Probable Maximum Loss (PML) is a risk metric that represents the maximum loss that could be expected, on average, within a given number of years. PML is widely used to establish limits related to the size of reserves that, for example, insurance companies or a government should have available to buffer losses: the higher the return period, the higher the expected loss. PML always have associated a mean return period.

Mean return period in years - Values for hazard are in million US$

Hazard
 
20 50 100 250 500 1000 1500
Earthquake 13 30 51 93 140 191 222
Wind 71 257 408 493 573 584 595
Storm Surge 47 59 65 80 80 81 82
Tsunami 0 1 1 3 8 44 87

Exposure to volcano

Number of volcanoes 18
Total population living within 30km from a volcano 2,564
% of population living with 30km distance from a volcano 2

INFORM 2015 Risk Index

What's this?
The INFORM model adopts the three aspects of vulnerability reflected in the UNISDR definition. The aspects of physical exposure and physical vulnerability are integrated in the hazard & exposure dimension, the aspect of fragility of the socio-economic system becomes INFORM's vulnerability dimension while lack of resilience to cope and recover is treated under the lack of coping capacity dimension.
INFORM 2015 risk index map

  Value Rank Trend
INFORM 3.07 108 UP
Hazard 1.51 145 UP
Vulnerability 3.86 75 EQUAL
Coping Capacity 4.97 93 EQUAL

Notes

Extensive risk is used to describe the risk of low-severity, high-frequency disasters, mainly but not exclusively associated with highly localized hazards. Intensive risk is used to describe the risk of high-severity, mid to low-frequency disasters, mainly associated with major hazards.

AAL: The Average Annual Loss is the expected loss per annum associated to the occurrence of future perils assuming a very long observation timeframe. It considers the damage caused on the exposed elements by small, moderate and extreme events and results a useful and robust metric for risk ranking and comparisons. AAL Flood results are provisional. These results give an overview of the risk associated with river flooding. Factors other than the depth of the water also have a considerable influence on loss, which means that there is greater uncertainty compared with other hazards.

Risk and development implications index. This index is useful to provide a ranking of the countries based on the ratio of the expected Average Annual Loss (AAL) with relation to a set of relevant macroeconomic, financial, and social development variables. It attempts to reveal the weight of the AAL with respect to the social expenditure, the capital formation (domestic investment) and reserves (financial capacity), and the produced capital or capital stock (assets at risk) and savings (treasury) of each country. It reflects, in adverse conditions, growth and social constraints for the country as a result of potential future disasters. The fiscal portfolio is composed by the government buildings, public education and health buildings, and low income residential private buildings.

PML: The Probable Maximum Loss is a risk metric that represents the maximum loss that could be expected, on average, within a given number of years. PML is widely used to establish limits related to the size of reserves that, for example, insurance companies or a government should have available to buffer losses: the higher the return period, the higher the expected loss. PML always have associated a mean return period. Mean return period of 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 years means the 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.3% probability respectively of exceeding those losses in 5 years.

Data source

UNISDR Global Risk Assessment 2015: GVM and IAVCEI, UNEP, CIMNE and associates and INGENIAR, FEWS NET and CIMA Foundation.

World Bank Development indicators. http://data.worldbank.org/

More information can be found in "Indicators definitions and sources".

International Labour Organisation, ILO: Total Social Protection expenditure (2012), Public Health Care expenditure (2012), World Bank Development indicators, Public Education expenditure (2011)

Global Footprint Network: http://www.footprintnetwork.org

EM-DAT (Feb. 2015) : The OFDA/CRED - International Disaster Database http://www.emdat.be Université catholique de Louvain Brussels - Belgium

Index for Risk Management 2015 (INFORM 2015): Inter-Agency Standing Committee Task Team for Preparedness and Resilience and the European Commission, http://www.inform-index.org